Therapeutic Approaches with Refugees and Asylum Seekers

We would like to express our deepest appreciation to researchers, mental health experts and practitioners whose work has been cited below, enriching our portal and practice of professionals working with refugees and asylum seekers.

Papers below have been researched and compiled by Dr Farkhondeh Farsimadan, a Chartered Counselling Psychologist who is an Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society and an HCPC registered psychologist.

Please use links below to access the research papers. For some papers multiple available links are provided as some links may eventually stop working.

Biological Therapy

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  • Askovic, M. et al. (2020). Evaluation of neurofeedback for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder related to refugee experiences using self-report and cognitive ERP measures. Clinical EEG Neuroscience, 51,2,79-86. DOI: 10.1177/1550059419849170

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  • Askovic, M., Watters, A.J., Aroche, J., & Harris, A.W.F. (2017). Neurofeedback as an adjunct therapy for treatment of chronic post traumatic stress disorder related to refugee trauma and torture experiences: two case studies. Australasian Psychiatry, 25,4,358-363. DOI: 10.1177/1039856217715988

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  • Bogner, D., Herlihy, J., & Brewin, C. (2007).  Impact of sexual violence on disclosure during Home Office interviews. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 75 - 81. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.030262.

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  • Bhui, K. (2018). Cultural neuroscience: ideas worth knowing. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 72, sup1, S5-S8. DOI: 10.1080/08039488.2018.1525647

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  • Brewin, C. (2011).  The Nature and Significance of Memory Disturbance in Post traumatic Stress Disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 203 - 227.

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  • Buchmuller, T. et al. (2020). Exploring hair steroid concentrations in asylum seekers, internally displaced refugees, and immigrants. Stress, 23,5, 538-545. DOI: 10.1080/10253890.2020.1737008

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  • Doherty, S.M., Craig, R., Gardani, M., & Mcmillan, T. M. (2016). Head injury in asylum seekers and refugees referred with psychological trauma. Global Mental Health, 3.doi:10.1017/gmh.2016.23

ResearchGate

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  • Graham, B., Herlihy, J., & Brewin, C. (2014).  Over-general memory in asylum seekers and refugees.  Journal of Behaviour Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 45,375-380.

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  • Herlihy, J., Scragg, P., & Turner, S. (2002).  Discrepancies in autobiographical memories - implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: Repeated interviews study.  British Medical Journal, 324.

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  • Herlihy, J. & Turner, S. (2007). Memory and seeking asylum.  European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling, 9,3, 267-276.

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  • Herlihy, J. & Turner, S. (2007). Asylum claims and memory of trauma: sharing our knowledge. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 1, 3-4. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.106.034439.

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  • Hinton, D. E., Hofmann, S. G., Pollack, M. H., & Otto, M. W. (2009). Mechanisms of efficacy of CBT for Cambodian refugees with PTSD: Improvement in emotion regulation and orthostatic blood pressure response. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, 15, 255–263. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949. 2009.00100.x

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  • Liddle, B. (2016). latest on neuroscience and trauma. NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

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  • Lies, J. et al. (2019). Prevalence of sleep disturbance and its relationships with mental health and psychosocial issues in refugees and asylum seekers attending psychological services in Australia. Sleep Health, 5,4, 335-343.

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  • Matosin, N. (2019). Trauma-related genetic, epigenetic and molecular factors contributing to mental illness – what do we know? NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

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  • McPherson, J.I. (2019). Traumatic brain injury among refugees and asylum seekers. Disability and Rehabilitation, 41,10, 1238-1242.  DOI: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1422038

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  • Mewes, R. et al. (2017). Elevated hair cortisol concentrations in recently fled asylum seekers in comparison to permanently settled immigrants and non-immigrants. Translational Psychiatry, 7,7,3, e1051. DOI: 10.1038/tp.2017.14.

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  • Mollica, R.F., Lyoo, I.K., Chernoff, M.C., Bui, H.X., Lavelle, J., Yoon, S.J., Kim, J.E., & Renshaw, P.F. (2009). Brain structural abnormalities and mental health sequelae in South Vietnamese ex-political detainees who survived traumatic head injury and torture. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66,1221-1232. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.127

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  • Ponsford, J. et al. (2020). The impact of cultural background on outcome following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 30,1, 85-100. DOI: 10.1080/09602011.2018.1453367

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  • Richter, K. et al. (2020). Sleep disorders in migrants and refugees: a systematic review with implications for personalised medical approach. EPMA Journal, 11,2, 251-260. DOI: 10.1007/s13167-020-00205-2.

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Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

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  • Alatiq, Y., & Alrshoud, H. (2018). Family-based cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder with family accommodation: case report from Saudi Arabia. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 11, E14. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X1800017X.

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  • Algahtani, H. et al. (2019). Cultural adaptation of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for patients with depression and anxiety in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain: a qualitative study exploring views of patients, carers, and mental health professionals. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E44. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X1900028X.

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  • Bahu, M. (2019). War, trauma and culture: working with Tamil refugees and asylum seekers using culturally adapted CBT. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E46. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X1900031X.

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  • Beck, A. (2019). Understanding Black and Minority Ethnic service users' experience of racism as part of the assessment, formulation and treatment of mental health problems in cognitive behaviour therapy. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E8. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000223.

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  • Berry, K. et al. (2018). Culturally adapted Family Intervention (CaFI): case examples from therapists' perspectives. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 11, E13. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000156.

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  • Brooks, M. (2019). The importance of using reflective practice when working with refugees, asylum seekers and survivors of torture within IAPT. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E16. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000023.

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  • Brunett, A.E. et al. (2020).  Migrations, trauma and mental health: a literature update on psychological assessment. Encephale, S0013-7006,20, 30120-2.  DOI: 10.1016/j.encep.2020.03.009.

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  • Chessell, Z. et al. (2019). A protocol for managing dissociative symptoms in refugee populations – CORRIGENDUM. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E48. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000345.

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  • Chessell, Z. et al. (2019). A protocol for managing dissociative symptoms in refugee populations. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E27. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000114.

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  • Crumlish, N., & O'Rourke, K. (2010).  A systematic review of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder among refugees and asylum seekers.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 237 – 251.

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  • D'Ardenne, P., Capuzzo, N., Ruaro, L., & Priebe, S. (2005).  One size fits all?  Cultural sensitivity in a psychological service for traumatised refugees.  Diversity in Health & Social Care, 2, 1.

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  • D'Ardenne, P., Ruaro, L., Cestari, L., Fakhoury, W., & Priebe, S. (2007).  Does interpreted-mediated cognitive behaviour therapy with traumatic refugee people work?  Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35, 293 – 301.

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  • de la Rie, S.M. (2020). Feasibility of narrative exposure therapy in an outpatient day treatment programme for refugees: improvement in symptoms and global functioning.  European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 11,1.  DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2020.1759983.

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  • Drozdek, B., Kamperman, A., Tol, W., Knipscheer, J., & Kleber, R. (2013).  Is legal status impacting outcomes of group therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder with male asylum seekers and refugees from Iran & Afghanistan?   BioMed Central Psychiatry, 13,148.

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  • Ehntholt, K., Smith, P., & Yule, W. (2005).  School-based cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention for refugee children who have experienced war-related trauma.  Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 10, 2, 235-250.

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  • Ehntholt, K.A. & Yule, W. (2006).  Assessment and treatment of refugee children and adolescents who have experienced war-related trauma.  Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 12, 1197 – 1210.

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  • Farhadi Langroudi, K., & Skinta, M. (2019). Working with gender and sexual minorities in the context of Islamic culture: a queer Muslim behavioural approach. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E21. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000096.

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  • Gary, J., & Rubin, N.S. (2014). A first person account of the refugee experience: identifying psychosocial stressors and formulating psychological responses. Psychology International, APA.

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  • Grech, P. & Grech, R. (2020). A comparison of Narrative Exposure Therapy and Non-Trauma-Focused Treatment in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 41,2, 91-101. DOI: 10.1080/01612840.2019.1650853.

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  • Grey, N. & Young, K. (2008).  Cognitive behaviour therapy with refugees and asylum seekers experiencing traumatic stress symptoms.  Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36, 1, 3 – 19.

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  • Hijazi, A.M., Lumley, M.A., Ziadni, M.S., Haddad, L., Rapport, L.J. & Arnetz, B.B. (2014).  Brief Narrative Exposure Therapy for Post Traumatic Stress in Iraqi Refugees: A Preliminary Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27,3, 314–322.

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  • Hinton, D. E., Hofmann, S. G., Pollack, M. H., & Otto, M. W. (2009). Mechanisms of efficacy of CBT for Cambodian refugees with PTSD: Improvement in emotion regulation and orthostatic blood pressure response. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, 15, 255–263. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.  2009.00100.x.

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  • Hinton, D.E. & Jalal, B. (2014).  Guidelines for the implementation of culturally sensitive cognitive behavioural therapy among refugees and in global contexts. Intervention, 12, 1, 78 – 93.

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  • Hinton, D. E., Rivera, E. I., Hofmann, S. G., Barlow, D. H., & Otto, M. W. (2012). Adapting CBT for traumatised refugees and ethnic minority patients: Examples from culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT). Transcultural Psychiatry, 49,2, 340–365.  doi:10.1177/1363461512441595.

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  • Jackson, L. C., Schmutzer, P. A., Wenzel, A., & Tyler, J. D. (2006). Applicability of cognitive-behaviour therapy with American-Indian individuals. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43, 4, 506-517. doi: 10.1037/0033-3204.43.4.506.

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  • Jalal, B., Kruger, Q., & Hinton, D. H. (2017). Adaptation of CBT for a Traumatized South African indigenous group (Sepedi): Examples from culturally adapted somatic-focused CBT (CA-CBT). Cognitive and Behavioural Practice.

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  • Jalal, B., Samir, W. S., & Hinton, D. E. (2017). Adaptation of CBT for traumatised Egyptians: Examples from culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT). Cognitive and Behavioural Practice, 24, 58-71.

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  • Jankowska, M. (2019). Cultural modifications of cognitive behavioural treatment of social anxiety among culturally diverse clients: a systematic literature review. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E7. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000211.

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  • Kada, R. (2019). Cultural adaptations of CBT for the British Jewish Orthodox community. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E4. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000120.

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  • Kananian, S., Ayoughi, S., Farugie, A., Hinton, D. & Stangier, U. (2017). Transdiagnostic culturally adapted CBT with Farsi-speaking refugees: a pilot study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8, Supp 2. 1390362, DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2017.1390362.

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  • Kaminer, D. & Eagle, T. G. (2017).  Interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the evidence base. South African Journal of Psychology, 47,1, 7-22.

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  • King, D., & Said, G. (2019). Working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people: cultural considerations and acceptability of a cognitive behavioural group approach. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E11. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000260.

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  • Lindegaard, T. et al (2020). Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety among Arabic-speaking individuals in Sweden: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. DOI: 10.1080/16506073.2020.1771414.

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  • Mcpherson, J. (2012). Does Narrative Therapy reduce PTSD in survivors of mass violence? Research on Social Work Practice, 22,1,29-42.

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  • Miller-Graff, L.E. & Campion, K. (2016). Interventions for Post Traumatic Stress with Children Exposed to Violence: Factors Associated with Treatment Success. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 72, 3, 226-248.

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  • Mir, G. et al.  (2019). Delivering a culturally adapted therapy for Muslim clients with depression. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E26. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000059.

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  • Naeem, F., Phiri, P., Munshi, T., Rathod, S ., Ayub, M., Gobbi, M., & Kingdon, D. (2015). Using cognitive behaviour therapy with South Asian Muslims: findings from the culturally sensitive CBT project. International Review of Psychiatry, 27,3, 233-246. doi: 10.3109/09540261.2015.1067598

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  • Naz, S. et al.  (2019). Addressing issues of race, ethnicity and culture in CBT to support therapists and service managers to deliver culturally competent therapy and reduce inequalities in mental health provision for BAME service users. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E22. DOI: 10.1017/S1754470X19000060

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  • Neuner, F. (2016). Narrative exposure therapy: concept & efficacy. A Webinar presentation featuring Dr Neuner, APA Division 56-Trauma Psychology.

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  • Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Klaschik, C., Karunakara, U. & Elbert, T.  (2004). A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counselling, and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an African refugee settlement.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72,4, 579-587.

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  • Neuner, F., Onyut, P. L., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, E. & Elbert, T. (2008). Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder by Trained Lay Counsellors in an African Refugee Settlement: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76,4, 486-694.

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  • Neuner F., Kurreck S., Ruf M., Odenwald M., Elbert T., & Schauer M. (2010). Can asylum seekers with post traumatic stress disorder be successfully treated? A randomised controlled pilot study. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, 39, 81–91.

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  • NICE (2018). Post-traumatic stress disorder overview. National Institute for Health & Care Excellence. NICE Guidelines [NG116].

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  • Nickerson, A., Bryant, R., & Silove, D. (2011). A critical review of psychological treatments for post traumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 399–417.

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  • Onyut, L. P., Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, M., et al. (2005). Narrative exposure therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with post traumatic stress disorder: Two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement. BioMed Central Psychiatry, 5, 7.

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  • Paunovic, N. & Ost, L. G.  (2001). Cognitive-behaviour therapy vs exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD in refugees. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39,10, 1183-1197.

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  • Perry, A. et al.  (2019). Exploring the cultural flexibility of the ACT model as an effective therapeutic group intervention for Turkish speaking communities in East London. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E2. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000041.

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  • Phiri, P. et al.  (2019). Culture and therapist self-disclosure. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E25. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000102.

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  • Rathod, S. et al. (2019). An evidence-based framework to culturally adapt cognitive behaviour therapy. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E10. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000247.

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  • Rees, M., Blackburn, P., Lab, D., & Herlihy, J. (2007).  Asylum 5 – working with asylum seekers in a clinical setting.  The Psychologist, 20, 162 – 163.

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  • Regel, S., & Berliner, P. (2007). Current perspectives on assessment and therapy with survivors of torture: The use of a cognitive behavioural approach. [Special edition: Refugees and asylum seekers]. European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling & Health, 9,3, 289-299.

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  • Robjant, K., Roberts, J., & Katona, C. (2017). Treating post traumatic stress disorder in female victims of trafficking using Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Retrospective Audit Treating Posttraumatic. Frontiers in Psychiatry.

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  • Ruf, M., Schauer, M., Neuner, F., Catani, C., Schauer, E., & Elbert T. (2010). Narrative Exposure Therapy for 7 to 16-year-olds: A randomised controlled trial with traumatised refugee children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 437–445.

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  • Schulz, P., Resick, P., Huber, L. C. & Griffin, M.  (2006). The effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy for PTSD with refugees in a community setting. Cognitive and Behavioural Practice, 13, 4, 322-331.

ResearchGate

  • Slobodin, O., & De Jong, J. (2015).  Mental health interventions for traumatised asylum seekers: what do we know about their efficacy?  International Journal of social psychiatry, 61, 1, 17 – 26.

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  • Stenmark H, Catani C, Neuner F, Elbert T, & Holen A. (2013). Treating PTSD in refugees and asylum seekers within the general health care system. A randomised controlled multicentre study. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 51,10, 641–647.

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  • Sullivan, A., Simonson, G. (2016). A Systematic Review of School-based Social-Emotional Interventions for Refugee and War-Traumatised Youth. Review of Educational Research, 86,2.

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  • Tay, A.K. et al. (2020). An Integrative Adapt Therapy for common mental health symptoms and adaptive stress amongst Rohingya, Chin, and Kachin refugees living in Malaysia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of PLoS Medicine, 17,3, e1003073.

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  • Ter Heide F. J.,  Mooren T. M., Knipscheer J. W. &  Kleber R. J. (2014). EMDR with traumatised refugees: From experience-based to evidence-based practice. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8,3, 147–156.

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  • Thompson, C.T., Vidgen, A., & Roberts, N. P. (2018). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 63,66-79.

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  • Tyrer, R., & Fazel, M (2014).  School and community based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review.  PLOS ONE 9,2, e89359.

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  • Vincent, F., Jenkins, H., Larkin, M., & Clohessy, S. (2012). Asylum seekers' experiences of trauma focused cognitive behaviour therapy: A qualitative study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 41, 579–593.

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  • Zgueb, Y. et al.  (2019). Cultural aspects of vaginismus therapy: a case series of Arab-Muslim patients. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E3. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000119

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Complementary Therapies

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  • Aggar, I. (2015). Calming the mind: healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia. Transcultural Psychiatry, 52,4,543-60. doi: 10.1177/1363461514568336

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  • Chung, S. C., & Hunt, J. (2016). Meditation in humanitarian aid: an action research. The Lancet, 388, S36. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)32272-3

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  • Every, D., Smith, K., Smith, B., Trigg, J., & Thompson, K, (2017). How can a donkey fly on the plane? The benefits and limits of animal therapy with refugees. Clinical Psychologist, APA, Australian Psychological Society, 21, 1, 44-53.

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  • Goodman, G. & Dent, V.F. (2019). When I Became a refugee, this became my refuge: a proposal for implementing a two-generation intervention using yoga and narrative to promote mental health in Syrian refugee caregivers and school readiness in their preschool children.  Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 18,4, 367-375. DOI: 10.1080/15289168.2019.1680939.

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  • Gopalkrishnan, N. (2012).Yoga therapy and the health of refugees. PhD thesis, Curtin University of Technology. Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Human Rights Education.

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  • Highfield, S. E., Lama, P., Gordin, M.A., Kaptchuk, T.J., & Crosby, S.S. (2012). Acupuncture and traditional Chinese medicine for survivors of torture and refugee trauma: a descriptive report. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14,3,433-440. doi.org/10.1007/s10903-011-9538-6.

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  • Hodge, D. R.  (2019). Spiritual assessment with refugees and other migrant populations: a necessary foundation for successful clinical practice.  Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work: Social Thought, 38,2, 121-139.  DOI: 10.1080/15426432.2019.1597663.

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  • Hodge, D.R. (2020). Administering spiritual assessments with refugees: an overview of conceptually distinct assessment options.  Journal of Refugee Studies, fey054 33,3, 479-499.

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  • Jespersen, K.V., & Vuust, P. (2012). The effect of relaxation music listening on sleep quality in traumatized refugees: a pilot study. Journal of Music Therapy, 49,2, 205-29.

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  • Kalmanowitz, D. (2016). Inhabited studio: art therapy and mindfulness, resilience, adversity and refugees. International Journal of Art Therapy, 21,2, 75-84. doi: 10.1080/17454832.2016.1170053.

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  • Kalmanowitz, D.L. (2017). Art therapy and mindfulness with survivors of political violence: a qualitative study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice & Policy, 9,1,107-113. doi: 10.1037/tra0000174.

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  • Lesmana, C. B. J., Suryani, L.K., Tiliopoulos. N., & Jensen, G.D. (2010). Spiritual-hypnosis assisted therapy: a new culturally-sensitive approach to the treatment and prevention of mental disorders. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 12,3, 195-208. doi: 10.1080/19349637.2010.498696.

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  • Longacre, M.M., Silver-Highfield, E.S., Lama, P., & Grodin, M.A. (2012).Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of refugees and survivors of torture: a review and proposal for action. Torture, 22,1, 38-57.

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  • Madsen, T.S., Carlsson, J., Nordbrandt, M., & Jensen. J.A. (2016). Refugee experiences of individual basic body awareness therapy and the level of transference into daily life. An interview study. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, 20,2,243-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2015.10.007.

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  • Rousseau, D., Weiss-Lewit, K., & Lilly, M. (2019). MeToo and Yoga: guidance for clinicians referring to trauma-informed yoga. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 1-10. doi: 10.1123/jcsp.2018-0038.

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  • Singer. J, & Adams, J. (2011). The place of Complementary Therapies in an Integrated Model of Refugee Health Care: Counsellors' and Refugee Clients' Perspectives. Journal of Refugee Studies, 24,2,351-375.

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  • Somasundaram, D. (2010). Using cultural relaxation methods in post-trauma care among refugees in Australia. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 3,1, 16-24. doi: 10.1080/17542860903411615.

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  • Witkiewitz, K. et al. (2013).  Mindfulness­based relapse prevention with racial and ethnic minority women. Addictive Behaviours, 38,12, 2821­2824.  DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.08.018.

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Creative Arts Therapies

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  • Chibici-Revneanu, C., | Dong, J. (Reviewing editor), (2020). Writing towards empathy: an expressive writing cycle with Central American migrants and host undergraduate students in Mexico. Cogent Arts & Humanities, 7,1.  DOI: 10.1080/23311983.2020.1720895

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  • Dieterich-Hartwell, R., & Koch, S.C. (2017). Creative Arts Therapies as Temporary Home for Refugees: Insights from Literature and Practice. Behavioral Sciences, 7,4, 69.

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  • Dokter, D. (1998). Arts Therapists, Refugees and Migrants: Reaching Across Borders. London: Jessica Kingsley publishers.

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  • Fitzpatrick, F. (2002). A Search for Home: The Role of Art Therapy in Understanding the Experiences of Bosnian Refugees in Western Australia. Art Therapy Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 19,4, 151-158.

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  • García-Medrano, S. & Panhofer, H. (2020).  Improving migrant well-being: spontaneous movement as a way to increase the creativity, spontaneity and welfare of migrants in Glasgow.  Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 15,3, 189-203. DOI: 10.1080/17432979.2020.1767208.

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  • Gentlemen-Byers, J. (1996). Children of the stones: art therapy interventions in the West Bank. Art Therapy, 13,4, 238-243. doi: 10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231.

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  • Gopalkrishnan, N. (2013). Multicultural Arts and Integrative Medicine: Empowering Refugees in the Healing Process. Electronic Journal of Studies in the Tropics, etropic, 12, 2, 119-133.

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  • Gray, A.E. (2018). Dance/movement therapy and survivors of torture. American Dance Therapy Association.

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  • Hollingsbee, E. (2019).  'Tomorrow we make it better': an art therapist's reflection on a community mural in a refugee camp in Greece. International Journal of Art Therapy, 24,4, 158-168. DOI: 10.1080/17454832.2019.1666155.

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  • Horghagen, S. & Josephsson, S. (2011). Theatre as liberation, collaboration and relationship for asylum seekers. Journal of Occupational Science, 17,3,168-176.

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  • Humphrey, A.S.  (2020).  Drawing out of detention: the transnational drawing practices of Eaten Fish, refugee cartoonist.  Journal of a/b: Auto/Biography Studies, 35,2, 435-458.  DOI: 10.1080/08989575.2020.1763569

DOI

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  • Kalmanowitz, D.  (2016). Inhabited Studio: Art therapy and Mindfulness, Resilience, Adversity and Refugees. International Journal of Art Therapy, 21,2, 75-84.

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  • Kalmanowitz, D.L. (2017). Art therapy and mindfulness with survivors of political violence: a qualitative study. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice & Policy, 9,1,107-113. doi: 10.1037/tra0000174

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  • Killian, T., Cardona, B., & Hudspeth, E. F. (2017). Culturally responsive play therapy with Somali refugees.  International Journal of Play Therapy, 26,1,23-32.

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  • Lenette, C., & Sunderland, N. (2016). Will there be music for us? Mapping the health and well- being potential of participatory music practice with asylum seekers and refugees across contexts of conflict and refuge. Arts & Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice, 8,1, 32-49.

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  • Lenette, C., Weston, D., Wise, P., Sunderland, N., & Bristed, H. (2016). Where words fail, music speaks: the impact of participatory music on the mental health and wellbeing of asylum seekers. Arts & Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy and Practice, 8,2, 125-139.

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  • Nakhost- Isfahani, S. (2008).  Art therapy with a young refugee woman - survivor of war, International Journal of Art Therapy,13,2, 79-87.

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  • Orth, J. (2005).  Music therapy with traumatised refugees in a clinical setting.  Voices, 5, 2.

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  • Portokaloglou, T. (2018). Transplanting the Soul-Tree: an analytical perspective on how the Sesame approach and movement with touch and sound became the fertile soil for the psychological support and therapy for refugee women. Dramatherapy, 39,2, 102-112. doi: 10.1080/02630672.2018.1482937.

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  • Posselt, T., & Hoog- Antink, M. (2016). The sound of lost homes: music therapy with refugees in Germany. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 25, sup1,108-108. doi: 10.1080/08098131.2016.1180121.

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  • Quinlan, R., Schweitzer, R.D., Khawaja, N., & Griffin, J. (2016). Evaluation of a school-based creative arts therapy program for adolescents from refugees. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 47, 72-78.

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  • Rousseau, C., Drapeau, A., Lacroix, L., Bagilishya, D., & Heusch, N. (2005). Evaluation of a classroom program of creative expression workshops for refugee and immigrant children, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 2, 180-185.

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  • Rousseau, C., Lacroix, L., Singh, A., Gauthier, M.-F., & Benoit, M. (2005). Creative Expression Workshops in School: Prevention Programs for Immigrant and Refugee Children. The Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 14,3, 77-80.

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  • Rova, M. et al. (2020).  Existing in-between two worlds: supporting asylum seeking women living in temporary accommodation through a creative movement and art intervention.  Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 15,3, 204-218.  DOI: 10.1080/17432979.2020.1772370.

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  • Schouten, K.A., Gerrit, J., & Knipscheer, J.W., Kleber, R.J., & Hutschemaekers, G.J.  (2015).  The effectiveness of art therapy in the treatment of traumatised adults: a systematic review on art therapy and trauma.  Trauma Violence Abuse, 16,2, 220 – 228. 

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  • Schouten MATh, K.A., van Hooren, S., Knipscheer, J.W., Kleber, R.J., & Hutschemaekers, G.J.M. (2019). Trauma-Focused Art Therapy in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: a Pilot Study. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. 20,1, 114-130. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2018.1502712.

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  • Stickley, T., Hui, A., Stubley, M., Baker, F., & Craig- Watson, M. (2018) "Write here, sanctuary" creative writing for refugees and people seeking asylum. Arts & Health. doi: 10.1080/17533015.2018.1494450.

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  • Sullivan, A., & Simonson, G. (2016).  A Systematic Review of School-Based Social-Emotional Interventions for Refugee and War-Traumatized Youth.  Review of Educational Research, 86, 2.

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  • Tyrer, R., & Fazel, M (2014).  School and community based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review.  PLOS ONE 9,2, e89359.

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  • Ugurlu, N., Akca, L., & Acarturk, C. (2016). An art therapy intervention for symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety among Syrian refugee children. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11,2,89-102.

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  • Vougioukalou, S. et al. (2019).  Wellbeing and integration through community music: the role of improvisation in a music group of refugees, asylum seekers and local community members.  Contemporary Music Review, 38,5, 533-548.  DOI: 10.1080/07494467.2019.1684075.

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  • Ward, J. (2018). 'Prove it' working with LGBTQ+ Asylum seekers who must prove their sexuality to stay in the UK. Dramatherapy, 39,3, 141-151. doi: 10.1080/02630672.2018.1524503.

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Culturally Sensitive Therapy

  • Alemi, Q., Weller, S. C., Montgomery, S., & James, S. (2017). Afghan refugee explanatory models of depression: Exploring core cultural beliefs. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 31,2, 177–197. doi:10.1111/maq.12296.

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  • Alemi, Q., James, S., & Montgomery, S. (2016). Contextualizing Afghan refugee views of depression through narratives of trauma, resettlement stress, and coping. Transcultural Psychiatry, 53, 5, 630–653.  doi:10.1177/1363461516660937.

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  • Algahtani, H. et al. (2019). Cultural adaptation of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for patients with depression and anxiety in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain: a qualitative study exploring views of patients, carers, and mental health professionals. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E44. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X1900028X.

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  • Amara, P. (2017). EMDR therapy in intercultural context. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1,3, 183-195.

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  • Bahu, M. (2019). War, trauma and culture: working with Tamil refugees and asylum seekers using culturally adapted CBT. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E46. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X1900031X.

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  • Bala, J., Mooren, T., & Cramer, S. (2014). Cultural Competence in the treatment of political refugees based on system approaches. Clinical Neuropsychiatry,11,1, 32-39.

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  • Bernal, G.& Sáez-Santiago E. (2006). Culturally Centered psychological interventions. Journal of Community Psychology, 34, 121–132.

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  • Berry, K. et al.  (2018). Culturally adapted Family Intervention (CaFI): case examples from therapists' perspectives. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 11, E13. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000156.

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  • Bhui, K. (2018). Cultural neuroscience: ideas worth knowing. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 72, sup1, S5-S8. DOI: 10.1080/08039488.2018.1525647.

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  • Dalgaard N. T.  et al. (2020). Interdisciplinary treatment of family violence in traumatized refugee families. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 16,1, 77-92.

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  • D'Ardenne, P., Capuzzo, N., Ruaro, L., & Priebe, S. (2005).  One size fits all?  Cultural sensitivity in a psychological service for traumatised refugees.  Diversity in Health & Social Care, 2, 1.  

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  • Derges, J., & Henderson, F. (2003).  Working with refugees and survivors of trauma in a day hospital setting.  Journal of Refugee Studies, 16, 1, 82-98. DOI:10.1093/jrs/16.1.82.

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ResearchGate

  • Farhadi Langroudi, K., & Skinta, M. (2019). Working with gender and sexual minorities in the context of Islamic culture: a queer Muslim behavioural approach. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E21. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000096.

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  • Farsimadan, F., Khan, A., & Draghi-Lorenz, R. (2011). On Ethnic Matching: a review of the research and consideration for practice, training and policy.  In C. Lago. (Ed.).  Handbook of Transcultural Counselling & Psychotherapy, (pp. 65 - 80).  Berkshire: Open University Press.

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  • Farsimadan, F. (2011).  The effects of a Middle Eastern (Iranian) heritage.  In C. Lago. (Ed.).  Handbook of Transcultural Counselling & Psychotherapy.  (pp. 278 - 289).  Berkshire: Open University Press.

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  • Goodkind J., LaNoue M., Lee C., Freeland L., & Freund R. (2012). Feasibility, acceptability, and initial findings from a community- based cultural mental health intervention for American Indian youth and their families. Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 381-405.

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  • Groen, S.P.N., Richters, A., Laban, C.J., & Deville, W. L. (2017). Cultural Identity Among Afghan and Iraqi Traumatized Refugees: Towards a Conceptual Framework for Mental Health Care Professionals. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 1-23.

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  • Grupp, F. et al. (2019). 'Only God can promise healing.': help-seeking intentions and lay beliefs about cures for post-traumatic stress disorder among Sub-Saharan African asylum seekers in Germany. European Journal of Psychotraumatology,10,1.  DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2019.1684225.

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  • Hinton, D. E., Chhean, D., Pich, V., Safren, S. A., Hofmann, S. G., & Pollack, M. H. (2005). A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy for Cambodian refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A cross-over design. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18,6, 617-629. doi:10.1002/jts.20070.

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  • Hinton, D. E., Hofmann, S. G., Pollack, M. H., & Otto, M. W. (2009). Mechanisms of efficacy of CBT for Cambodian refugees with PTSD: Improvement in emotion regulation and orthostatic blood pressure response. CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, 15, 255-263. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949. 2009.00100.x

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  • Hinton, D. E., Hofmann, S., Rivera, G., Otto, E., Pollack, M. W., & Mark, H. (2011). Culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT) for Latino women with treatment-resistant PTSD. A pilot study comparing CA-CBT to applied muscle relaxation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49,4, 275-280.

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  • Hinton, D. E., Rivera, E. I., Hofmann, S. G., Barlow, D. H., & Otto, M. W. (2012). Adapting CBT for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority patients: Examples from culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT). Transcultural Psychiatry, 49,2, 340-365.  doi:10.1177/1363461512441595.

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  • Hinton, D.E. & Jalal, B. (2014).  Guidelines for the implementation of culturally sensitive cognitive behavioral therapy among refugees and in global contexts. Intervention, 12, 1, 78 - 93.

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  • Hollifield, M., Verbillis-Kolp, S., Farmer, B., Toolson, E.C., Woldehaimanot, Y., Yamazaki, J., & SooHoo, J. (2013).  The Refugee Health Screener-15 (RHS-15): development and validation of an instrument for anxiety, depression and PTSD in refugees.  General Hospital Psychiatry, 35, 2, 202 - 209.

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  • Im, H., & Swan, L.E.T. (2020). Capacity building for refugee mental health in resettlement: implementation and evaluation of Cross-Cultural Trauma-Informed Care Training. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health,22,5,923-934.

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  • Isakson, B. L., Legerski, J. P., & Layne, C. M. (2015). Adapting and implementing evidence-based interventions for trauma-exposed refugee youth and families. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45,4, 245-253.

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  • Jackson, L. C., Schmutzer, P. A., Wenzel, A., & Tyler, J. D. (2006). Applicability of cognitive-behaviour therapy with American- Indian individuals. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 43,4, 506-517. doi: 10.1037/0033-3204.43.4.506.

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  • Jalal, B., Kruger, Q., & Hinton, D. H. (2017). Adaptation of CBT for a Traumatized South African indigenous group (Sepedi): Examples from culturally adapted somatic-focused CBT (CA-CBT). Cognitive and Behavioural Practice.

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  • Jalal, B., Samir, W. S., & Hinton, D. E. (2017). Adaptation of CBT for traumatized Egyptians: Examples from culturally adapted CBT (CA-CBT). Cognitive and Behavioural Practice, 24, 58-71.

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  • Kananian, S., Ayoughi, S., Farugie, A., Hinton, D. & Stangier, U. (2017). Transdiagnostic culturally adapted CBT with Farsi-speaking refugees: a pilot study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8, Supp 2. 1390362, DOI: 10.1080/20008198.2017.1390362.

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  • Killian, T., Cardona, B., & Hudspeth, E. F. (2017). Culturally responsive play therapy with Somali refugees.  International Journal of Play Therapy, 26,1,23-32.

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Website

  • King, D., & Said, G. (2019). Working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people: cultural considerations and acceptability of a cognitive behavioural group approach. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E11. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000260.

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PDF

  • Lesmana, C. B. J., Suryani, L.K., Tiliopoulos. N., & Jensen, G.D. (2010). Spiritual-hypnosis assisted therapy: a new culturally-sensitive approach to the treatment and prevention of mental disorders. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 12,3, 195-208. doi: 10.1080/19349637.2010.498696.

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  • Loewy, M.I., Toliver Williams, D. & Keleta, A. (2002). Group Counselling with Traumatized East African Refugee Women in the United States. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 27, 2, 173-191.

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  • Miller, K. E., Omidian, P., Quraishy, A. S., Quraishy, N., Nasiry, M. N., Nasiry, S., & Yaqubi, A. A. (2006). The Afghan Symptom Checklist: A culturally grounded approach to mental health. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 423-433.  doi:10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.423.

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  • Mir, G. et al.  (2019). Delivering a culturally adapted therapy for Muslim clients with depression. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E26. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000059.

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  • Naeem, F., Phiri, P., Munshi, T., Rathod, S., Ayub, M., Gobbi, M., & Kingdon, D. (2015). Using cognitive behaviour therapy with South Asian Muslims: findings from the culturally sensitive CBT project. International Review of Psychiatry, 27,3, 233-246. doi: 10.3109/09540261.2015.1067598.

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  • Phiri, P. et al.  (2019). Culture and therapist self-disclosure. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E25. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X19000102.

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  • Rathod, S. et al. (2019). An evidence-based framework to culturally adapt cognitive behaviour therapy. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E10. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000247.

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  • Salem, I., & Renner, W. (2015). Educating asylum seekers and refugees to cope with post-traumatic stress: An ethnic approach to professional and lay interventions. European Scientific Journal, 2, ISSN: 1857-7881.

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  • Schouler-Ocak, M. (2017). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Trauma-centred psychotherapy in patients with refugee background. Psychotherapeut, 62,4, 314-321. doi:10.1007/s00278-017-0202-z.

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  • Somasundaram, D. (2010). Using cultural relaxation methods in post-trauma care among refugees in Australia. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 3,1, 16-24. doi: 10.1080/17542860903411615.

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  • Spanhel, K. et al. (2019).  Cultural adaptation of internet interventions for refugees: results from a user experience study in Germany. Internet Interventions,18,100252.

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  • Suyemoto, K.L., Liem, J.H.,  Kuhn, J.C. ,  Mongillo, E.A. & Tauriac, J.J. (2007). Training therapists to be culturally sensitive with Asian American women clients. Women & Therapy,30,3-4,209-227.

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  • Van Loon, A., van Schaik, D. J. F., Dekker, J. J., & Beekman A. T. F. (2011). Effectiveness of an intercultural module added to the treatment guidelines for Moroccan and Turkish patients with depressive and anxiety disorders. Bio Med Central, BMC Psychiatry, 11, 13–19.

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  • WHO (2015).  WHO Europe Policy Brief on migration and health: mental health care for refugees.  WHOEU.

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  • Zgueb, Y. et al.  (2019). Cultural aspects of vaginismus therapy: a case series of Arab-Muslim patients. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E3. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000119.

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EMDR, Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy

  • Acarturk, C., Konuk, E., Cetinkaya, M., Senay, I., Sijbrandij, M., Gulen, B., & Cuijpers, P. (2016). The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees: results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 46,12, 2583-2593.

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  • Acarturk, C., Konuk, E., Cetinkaya, M., Senay, I., Sijbrandij, M., Cuijpers, P., & Aker, T. (2015). EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6, 27414.

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PDF

  • Amara, P. (2017). EMDR therapy in intercultural context. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 1,3, 183-195.

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Website

  • Fernandez, I., Farrell, D., Carriere, R., & Stoter, B. (2016). The refugee crisis in Europe and its implications for EMDR therapists.

PDF

  • Formenti, L. (2016). Traumatised refugees and EMDR psychotherapy: a brief report of experience-based EMDR practices with refugees and asylum seekers in Italy. EMDR Europe Association. Psychotraumatology Research Centre, Milan, Italy.

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  • Gattinara, P.C., Onofri, A., & Angelini, C. (2016).The EMDR approach used as a tool to provide psychological help to refugees and asylum seekers. In M.Nickerson (ed.) Cultural competence and healing culturally-based trauma with EMDR therapy: innovative strategies and protocols. doi:10.1891/9780826142870.0008.

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  • Gattinara, P. C. & Pallini, S. (2017). The use of EMDR with refugee and asylum seekers: a review of research studies. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14,5, 341-344.

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Website

  • Lehnung, M., Shapiro, E., Schreiber, M., & Hoffman, A.(2017). Evaluating the EMDR Group Traumatic Episode Protocol with Refugees: a Field Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11,3,129-138.doi:10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.129.

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Website

  • Oren, E., & Solomon, R. (2012). EMDR therapy: an overview of its development and mechanisms of action. European Review of Applied Psychology, 62,4,197-203.

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  • Schouler-Ocak, M. (2017). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Trauma-centred psychotherapy in patients with refugee background. Psychotherapeut, 62,4, 314-321. doi:10.1007/s00278-017-0202-z.

Website

  • Shapiro, F.(2012). EMDR therapy: An overview of current and future research. European Review of Applied Psychology, 62,4,193-5.

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  • Shapiro, F. (2012). Getting past your past: Take control of your life with self-help technique from EMDR therapy. New York: Rodale Books.

Website

  • Shapiro, F. (2014). EMDR: the past is present, understanding the effects of unprocessed memories and using EMDR therapy in treatment. Mental Research Institute. A webinar presentation featuring Dr Shapiro hosted by the Psychology Webinar Group.

Video

  • Sykinioti, S. (2019). The effectiveness of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing with refugees experiencing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 3,1,49-55.

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Website

  • Ter Heide, F.J., Mooren, T.M., van de Schoot, R., de Jongh, A., & Kleber, R.J. (2016). Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy v. stabilisation as usual for refugees: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 209, 4,311-318.

Website

  • Ter Heide, F. J., Mooren, T. M., Knipscheer, J. W. & Kleber, R. J. (2014). EMDR with traumatized refugees: from experience-based to evidence-based practice. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8,3, 147–156.

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PDF

  • Ter Heide, F. J., Mooren, T. M., Kleijn, W., de Jongh, A.& Kleber R. J. (2011).EMDR versus stabilisation in traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: results of a pilot study. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2,1.

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PDF

  • Thompson, C.T., Vidgen, A., & Roberts, N. P. (2018). Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 63,66-79.

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  • Yurtsever, A., Konuk, E., Akyuz, T., Zat, Z., Tukel, F., Cetinkaya, M., Sarvan, C., & Shapiro, E. (2018). An Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) group intervention for Syrian refugees with Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms: results of a randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 9,493. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00493.

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ResearchGate

  • Zaghrout-Hodali, M. (2014). Humanitarian work using EMDR in Palestine and the Arab world. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8,4,248-251. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.8.4.248.

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Group Therapy

  • Akinsulure-Smith, A. (2009). Brief Psychoeducational Group Treatment with Re-Traumatized Refugees and Asylum Seekers. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 34, 2, 137-150.

Website

  • Akinsulure-Smith, A.  (2012).  Using group work to rebuild family and community ties among displaced African men. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 37,2, 95-112. doi: 10.1080/01933922.2011.646086.

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  • Bahu, M. (2019). War, trauma and culture: working with Tamil refugees and asylum seekers using culturally adapted CBT. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E46. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X1900031X.

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Website

  • Chen, H. & Chen, E. C.  (2020). Working with Interpreters in therapy groups for forced migrants: challenges and opportunities.  International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 70,2, 244-269. DOI: 10.1080/00207284.2019.1685885.

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  • Drožđek, B., & Bolwerk, N. (2010).  Evaluation of group therapy with traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: The Den Bosch Model. Traumatology, 16, 4, 117 - 127.

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  • Drožđek, B., & Bolwerk, N. (2010).  Group therapy with traumatised asylum seekers and refugees: for whom it works and for whom it does not?  Traumatology, 16, 4, 160 - 167.

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  • Drožđek, B., Kamperman, A., Bolwerk, N., Tol, W., & Kleber, R (2012). Group Therapy with Male Asylum Seekers and Refugees with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Controlled Comparison Cohort Study of Three Day-Treatment Programs. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 200, 9,758-765.

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  • Drožđek, B., Kamperman, A., Tol, W., Knipscheer, J., & Kleber, R. (2013).  Is legal status impacting outcomes of group therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder with male asylum seekers and refugees from Iran & Afghanistan?   BioMed Central Psychiatry, 13,148.

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  • Drožđek, B., Kamperman, A. M, Tol., W.A., Knipscheer., J.W. & Kleber., R. (2014). Seven-year follow-up study of symptoms in asylum seekers and refugees with PTSD treated with Trauma- Focused Groups.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70,4, 376-387.

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  • Ehntholt, K., Smith, P., & Yule, W. (2005).  School-based cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention for refugee children who have experienced war-related trauma.  Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 10, 2, 235-250.

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  • Gentlemen-Byers, J. (1996). Children of the Stones: Art Therapy Interventions in the West Bank. Art Therapy, 13,4, 238-243. doi: 10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231.

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  • King, D., & Said, G. (2019). Working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people: cultural considerations and acceptability of a cognitive behavioural group approach. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E11. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000260.

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Website

  • Kira, I., Ahmed A., Mahmoud, V., & Wassin, F. (2010).  Group therapy model for refugees and torture survivors. Torture, 20, 2, 108 – 113.

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Website

  • Kira, I., Ahmed, A., Wasim, F., Mahmoud, V., Colrain, J., & Rai, D. (2012).  Group Therapy for Refugees and Torture Survivors: Treatment Model Innovations.  International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 62,1,69-88.

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  • Lehnung, M., Shapiro, E., Schreiber, M., & Hoffman, A.(2017). Evaluating the EMDR group traumatic episode protocol with refugees: a field study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 11,3,129-138.doi:10.1891/1933-3196.11.3.129.

ResearchGate

Website

  • Leiderman, L.M. (2020). Psychodynamic group therapy with Hispanic migrants: interpersonal, relational constructs in treating complex trauma, dissociation, and enactments.  International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 70,2, 162-182. DOI: 10.1080/00207284.2019.1686704.

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Website

  • Loewy, M.I., Toliver Williams, D. & Keleta, A. (2002). Group Counselling with Traumatized East African Refugee Women in the United States. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 27, 2, 173-191.

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  • Matheson, C. & Weightman, E. (2020). A participatory study of patient views on psychotherapy for complex post-traumatic stress disorder, CPTSD. Journal of Mental Health. DOI: 10.1080/09638237.2020.1803229.

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  • Perry, A. et al.  (2019). Exploring the cultural flexibility of the ACT model as an effective therapeutic group intervention for Turkish speaking communities in East London. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E2. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000041.

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  • Reading, R., & Rubin, L. (2011). Advocacy and empowerment: group therapy for LGBT asylum seekers. Traumatology, 17, 2.

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  • Robertson, M., E., Blumberg, J.M., Gratton, J.L., Walsh, E.G., & Kaval, H. (2013). A group-based approach to stabilisation and symptom management in a phased treatment model for refugees and asylum seekers. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 4.

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  • Schwartz, S., & Melzak, S. (2005).  Using story telling in psychotherapeutic group work with young refugees.  Group Analysis, 38, 2. 

Website

  • Tucker, S., & Price, D. (2007).  Finding a home: group psychotherapy for traumatised refugees and asylum seekers.  European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling, 9, 3. 277-287.

Website

  • Tucker, S. (2011). Psychotherapy Groups for Traumatized Refugees and Asylum Seekers. Group Analysis 44,1,68-82. doi:10.1177/0533316410390478.

Website

  • Yurtsever, A., Konuk, E., Akyuz, T., Zat, Z., Tukel, F., Cetinkaya, M., Sarvan, C., & Shapiro, E. (2018). An Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) group intervention for Syrian refugees with Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms: results of a randomized controlled trial. Frontiers in Psychology, 9,493. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00493.

Website

ResearchGate

  • Vougioukalou, S. et al. (2019).  Wellbeing and integration through community music: the role of improvisation in a music group of refugees, asylum seekers and local community members. Contemporary Music Review, 38,5, 533-548.  DOI: 10.1080/07494467.2019.1684075.

DOI

Website

Integrative Therapy

  • Farsimadan F. (2021) Therapy and Therapeutic Considerations with Refugees and Asylum Seekers. In: Bhugra D., Moussaoui D., Ventriglio A., Tribe R. (eds) Mental Health, Mental Illness and Migration. Mental Health and Illness Worldwide. Springer, Singapore. 

Link 

  • German, M., & Ehntholt, K. (2007).  Asylum 2 – working with refugee children and families.  The Psychologist, 20, 152 – 155.

Website

  • Hays, P. A. (2009). Integrating evidence-based practice, cognitive-behaviour therapy, and multicultural therapy: Ten steps for culturally competent practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40,4, 354-360.

DOI

Website

  • Isakson, B. L., Legerski, J. P., & Layne, C. M. (2015). Adapting and implementing evidence-based interventions for trauma-exposed refugee youth and families. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45,4, 245-253.

Website

  • Katsounari, J. (2014).  Integrating Psychodynamic Treatment and Trauma Focused Intervention in the Case of an Unaccompanied Minor with PTSD. Clinical Case Studies, 13,4, 352-367.

Website

  • Miller, K.E. & Rasmussen, A. (2010). War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: Bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 7-16.

Website

PDF

  • Murray, K., Davidson, G., & Schwitzer, R. (2010).  Review of refugee mental health interventions following resettlement: best practices and recommendations.  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 80, 4, 576 - 585.

Website

Website

  • Tay, A.K. et al. (2020). An Integrative Adapt Therapy for common mental health symptoms and adaptive stress amongst Rohingya, Chin, and Kachin refugees living in Malaysia: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of PLoS Medicine, 17,3, e1003073.

DOI

Website

Website

Narrative Therapy

  • Amias, D., Hughes, G., & Barratt, S. (2014). Multi-layered systemic and narrative interventions with refugees and asylum seekers in a community child and adolescent mental health service.  Journal of therapy consultation and training, 25,1,25-30.

Website

  • Burns, C. (2015). 'My story to be told': Explorations in narrative documentation with people from refugee backgrounds. International Journal of Narrative Therapy & Community Work, 4,26-39.

Website

  • Crumlish, N., & O'Rourke, K. (2010).  A systematic review of treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder among refugees and asylum seekers.  Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 237 - 251.

Website

  • German, M. (2013).  Developing our cultural strengths: using the 'Tree of Life' strength-based, narrative therapy intervention in schools, to enhance self-esteem, cultural understanding and to challenge racism.  Educational and Child Psychology, 30, 4, 75 - 99.

Website

  • Goodman, G. & Dent, V.F. (2019). When I Became a refugee, this became my refuge: a proposal for implementing a two-generation intervention using yoga and narrative to promote mental health in Syrian refugee caregivers and school readiness in their preschool children.  Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 18,4, 367-375. DOI: 10.1080/15289168.2019.1680939

Website

  • Hughes, G. (2014). Finding a voice through 'The Tree of Life': A strength-based approach to mental health for refugee children and families in schools. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 19,1, 139-153.

Link

  • Hulusi, H. M. & Oland, L. (2010). Using narrative to make sense of transitions: supporting newly arrived children and young people.  Journal of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties 15,4, 341-351.

Link

Link

  • Jannesari, S., Molyneaux, E., & Lawrence, V. (2019). What affects the mental health of people seeking asylum in the UK? a narrative analysis of migration stories.Qualitative Research in Psychology. doi: 10.1080/14780887.2019.1581311

Link

  • Lee, P. L. (2013). Making now precious:  Working with survivors of torture and asylum seekers. The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 1. 

Link

  • Morgan, A.  (2000). What is Narrative Therapy? An easy- to- read introduction.  Dulwich Centre Publication.

Link

  • Moore, T. (2017). Strengths-based narrative storytelling as therapeutic intervention for refugees in Greece. World Federation of Occupational Therapists Bulletin, 73 ,1, 45-51.

Link

Link

  • Naghibi, N. et al.  (2020).  Migration, exile, and diaspora in Graphic Life Narratives.  a/b: Auto/Biography Studies, 35,2, 295-304. DOI: 10.1080/08989575.2020.1738081

Link

Link

  • Pia, E. (2013). Narrative Therapy and Peacebuilding.  Journal of Intervention and State building, 7, 4, 476-491.

Link

Link

  • Rees, M., Blackburn, P., Lab, D., & Herlihy, J. (2007).  Asylum 5 – working with asylum seekers in a clinical setting.  The Psychologist, 20, 162 – 163.

Link

Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Therapy

  • Alayarian, A.  (2004). Counter-transference in working with refugees. Self & Society: An International Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 32,5, 42-46.

Website

  • Alessi, E. & Kahn, S. (2017). Using psychodynamic interventions to engage in trauma-informed practice. Journal of Social Work Practice, 1-13.

DOI

Website

  • Costa, B., & Dewaele, J.M. (2012). Psychotherapy across languages: beliefs, attitudes and practices of monolingual and multilingual therapists with their multilingual patients.  Language and Psychoanalysis 1, 18-40.

PDF

  • Eleftheriadou, Z. (1999). Psychotherapeutic work with refugees: Understanding the therapist's countertransference.  Journal of Psychodynamic Counselling, 5,2, 219-230.

DOI

Website

  • Joksimovic, L.& Kruse, J. (2017). Psychodynamic Trauma therapy of refugees with PTSD and somatization. Psychotherapy Psychosomatic Med Psychol, 67, 3-4, 142-151.

DOI

Website

  • Kaminer, D. & Eagle, T. G. (2017).  Interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of the evidence base. South African Journal of Psychology, 47,1, 7-22.

Website

  • Katsounari, J. (2014).  Integrating Psychodynamic Treatment and Trauma Focused Intervention in the Case of an Unaccompanied Minor with PTSD. Clinical Case Studies, 13,4, 352-367.

Website

  • Leiderman, L.M. (2020). Psychodynamic group therapy with Hispanic migrants: interpersonal, relational constructs in treating complex trauma, dissociation, and enactments.  International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 70,2, 162-182. DOI: 10.1080/00207284.2019.1686704.

DOI

Website

  • Martin, P. (2012). 'Grief that has no vent in tears, makes other organs weep.' Seeking refuge from trauma in the medical setting. Journal of Child Psychotherapy. 38,1, 3-21. doi: 10.1080/0075417X.2011.651839.

Website

  • Melzak, S. (2017). Building seven bridges with young asylum seekers living in exile in the UK (Part 1). Psychodynamic Practice, 23,3, 235-248. doi: 10.1080/14753634.2017.1335227

Link

  • Melzak, S. (2017). Building seven bridges with young asylum seekers living in exile in the UK (Part 2). Psychodynamic Practice, 23,4, 368-381. doi: 10.1080/14753634.2017.1360788

Link

  • Pepper, C. (2005). Gay men tortured on the basis of homosexuality. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 41,1, 35-54. doi: 10.1080/00107530.2005.10745847

Link

  • Qushua, N., & Ostler, T. (2018). Creating a safe therapeutic space through naming: psychodynamic work with traditional Arab LGBT clients. Journal of Social Work Practice. doi.org/10.1080/02650533.2018.1478395

Link

  • Schottenbauer, M., Glass, C., Arnkoff, D., & Gray, S. (2008).  Contributions of Psychodynamic Approaches to Treatment of PTSD and Trauma: A Review of the Empirical Treatment and Psychopathology Literature.  Psychiatry, 71, 1,13 - 34.

Link

Link

  • Varvin, S. (1998). Psychoanalytic psychotherapy with traumatised refugees: integration, symbolisation, and mourning. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 52, 1, 64-71.

Link

  • Varvin, S. (2017). Our Relations to Refugees: Between Compassion and Dehumanisation. The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 77,4, 359-377.

Link

Psychosocial Therapy

  • De Jong, K. (2011). Psychosocial and mental health interventions in areas of massive violence: a community-based approach.  Guideline document, second edition. Medecins San Frontieres.

Website

  • Dorsey, S., McLaughlin, K.A., Kerns, S. E., Harrison, J.P., Lambert, H.K., Briggs. E.C., Cox, J.R. & Amaya-Jackson, L. (2017). Evidence Base Update for Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents Exposed to Traumatic Events.  Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 46,3,303.

Website

  • Eloranata, S.J., Peltonen, K., Palosaari, E., Qouta, S.R., & Punamaki, R.L. 2016).  The role of attachment and emotion regulation in the psychosocial intervention among war-affected children. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 10, 4, 301-314.

Website

  • Fazel, M. (2018). Psychological and psychosocial interventions for refugee children resettled in high-income countries. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 27,2,117-123.

DOI

Website

Website

  • Jordans, M.J.D., Pigott, H. & Tol, W.A. (2016). Interventions for Children Affected by Armed Conflict: A Systematic Review of Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18,9. 

Website

  • Jordans, M., Tol, W., Komproe. I., & De Jong., J.  (2009). Systematic Review of Evidence and Treatment Approaches: Psychosocial and Mental Health Care for Children in War. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 14,1, 2-14.

Website

PDF

  • Kronick, R. (2017). Mental Health of Refugees and Asylum Seekers: assessment and Intervention. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 63,5, 706743717746665.

DOI

  • McFarlane C. A., & Kaplan I. (2012). Evidence-based psychological interventions for adult survivors of torture and trauma: A 30-year review. Transcultural Psychiatry, 49, 539-567.

Website

  • Miller, K.E., & Rasmussen, A. (2010). War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Social Science & Medicine 70, 7-16.

DOI

Website

  • Nocon, A., Eberle-Sejari, R., Unterhitzenberger, J. & Rosner, R. (2017).  The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in war-traumatized refugee and internally displaced minors: systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 8,2.

DOI

Website

  • Nosè, M., Ballette, F.,  Bighelli, I., Turrini, G., Purgato, M., Tol, W., Priebe, S.,& Barbui, C. (2017).  Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE, 12,2. e0171030.

DOI

Website

  • O'Callaghan, P., McMullen, J., Shannon, C., & Rafety, H. (2015).  Comparing a trauma focused and non-trauma focused intervention with war affected Congolese youth: a preliminary randomised trial, Intervention, 13, 1 28 - 44.

PDF

  • Palic, S., & Elklit, A. (2011). Psychosocial treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in adult refugees: A systematic review of prospective treatment outcome studies and a critique. Journal of Affective Disorders, 131, 8-23.

Website

  • Psychosocial Innovation Network, PIN.  (2017).  Refugees' Mental Health Mental Health Report. UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency & PIN.

PDF

PDF

  • Psychosocial Innovation Network, PIN.  (2017).  Challenges and Potentials of Refugee Children: Data Review. UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency & PIN.

PDF

PDF

  • Sambucini, D. et al. (2020). Efficacy of psychological interventions on depression, anxiety and somatisation in migrants: a mental-analysis.  Journal of Immigrant Minority Health. 22, 1320-1346.

DOI

Website

  • Tribe, R., Sendt, K., & Tracy, D. (2017). A systemic review of psychosocial Interventions for adult refugees and asylum seekers. Journal of Mental Health, 9, 1-15.

Website

Website

  • Turrini, et al (2019). Efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions in asylum seekers and refugees: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 1–13.

PDF

Website

Uitterhaegen, B.  (2005). Psycho-education and psychosocial support in the Netherlands: a program by and for refugees.  Intervention, 3,2, 141-147.

PDF

  • Weine, S., Danieli, Y., Silove, D., Ommeren, M. Van., Fairbank, J.A., & Saul, J. (2002).  Guidelines for International Training in Mental Health and Psychosocial Interventions for Trauma Exposed Populations in Clinical and Community Settings.  Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 65, 2, 156 - 164.

Website

Supportive Counselling

  • A Queensland Program of Assistance to Survivors of Torture and Trauma (QPASTT) Guidebook. Compassion Fatigue, Burnout and Vicarious Trauma, November 2016.

PDF

  • Barrington, A., & Shakespeare-Finch, J. (2013). Working with refugee survivors of torture and trauma: An opportunity for vicarious post-traumatic growth. Journal of Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 26,1, 89-105.

DOI

Website

  • Brice, A. (2011). "If I go back, they'll kill me..." Person-centred therapy with lesbian and gay clients. Person-Centred & Experiential Psychotherapies, 10,4, 248-259.

DOI

Website

  • Century, G., Leavey, G., & Payne, H. (2007).  The experience of working with refugees: counsellors in primary care.  British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 35, 1.

Website

  • Cowles, M., & Griggs, M. (2019). Considering boundaries when doing therapeutic work with people who are seeking asylum: a reflective case study. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 47,1, 50-64. doi: 10.1080/03069885.2018.1507535.

Website

  • Di Tomasso, L. (2010). Approaches to counselling resettled refugee and asylum seeker survivors of organised violence. International Journal of Child Youth and Family Studies, 1, 244-264.

Website

Website

  • Douglas, A.R. (2010).  Working with bereaved asylum seekers and refugees.  Bereavement Care, 29, 3, 5 - 9.

DOI

Website

  • Gardiner, J., & Walker, K. (2010).  Compassionate listening: managing psychological trauma in refugees.  Australian Family Physician, 39, 4, 198 - 203.

PDF

  • Griffiths, P. (2001).  Counselling asylum seekers and refugees: a study of Kurds in early and later stages of exile.  European Journal of Psychotherapy, Counselling and Health, 4, 2.

Website

  • Mechili, E. A., et al (2018). Compassionate care provision: an immense need during the refugee crisis: lessons learned from a European capacity-building project. Journal of Compassionate Health Care, 5,1, 2. 

DOI

Website

  • Mirdal, G.M., Ryding, E., & Essendrop-Sondej, M. (2012). Traumatized refugees, their therapists, and their interpreters: three perspectives on psychological treatment. Psychology & Psychotherapy,85,4,436-55. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8341.2011.02036.x.

Website

  • Neuner, F., Onyut, P. L., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, E. & Elbert, T. (2008). Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder by Trained Lay Counsellors in an African Refugee Settlement: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76,4, 486-694.

Website

  • Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Klaschik, C., Karunakara, U. & Elbert, T.  (2004). A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counselling, and psychoeducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an African refugee settlement.  Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72,4, 579-587.

Website

  • Rees, M., Blackburn, P., Lab, D., & Herlihy, J. (2007).  Asylum 5 - working with asylum seekers in a clinical setting.  The Psychologist, 20, 162 – 163.

Website

  • Shannon, P., O'Dougherty, M., & Mehta, E. (2012). Refugees' perspectives on barriers to communication about trauma histories in primary care.  Mental Health in Family Medicine, 9,1, 47 - 55.

Website

Website

Website

  • Warr, S. (2010) Counselling refugee young people: an exploration of therapeutic approaches. Pastoral Care in Education: An International Journal of Personal, Social and Emotional Development 28:4, 269-282.  DOI: 10.1080/02643944.2010.481307.

DOI

Website

Systemic Family Therapy

  • Amias, D., Hughes, G., & Barratt, S. (2014). multi-layered systemic and narrative interventions with refugees and asylum seekers in a community child and adolescent mental health service.  Journal of Therapy, Consultation & Training, 25,1,25-30.

Website

  • Bala, J., Mooren, T., & Cramer, S. (2014). Cultural Competence in the treatment of political refugees based on system approaches. Clinical Neuropsychiatry,11,1, 32-39.

PDF

  • Berry, K. et al.  (2018). Culturally adapted Family Intervention (CaFI): case examples from therapists' perspectives. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 11, E13. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000156.

DOI

Website

  • Betancourt, T. S., Abdi, S., Ito, B. S., Lilienthal, G. M., Agalab, N., & Ellis, H. (2015). We left one war and came to another: resource loss, acculturative stress, and caregiver-child relationships in Somali refugee families. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21,1, 114-125.

DOI

Website

  • Björn, G. J., Gustafsson, P. A., Sydsjö, G., & Berterö, C. (2013). Family therapy sessions with refugee families: a qualitative study. Conflict and Health, 7, 1, 7:7.

Website

  • Björn, G. J., Boden, C., Sydsjö, G., &   Gustafsson, P. A., (2013).  Brief Family Therapy for Refugee Children. The Family Journal, 21,3,272-278.

DOI

  • Burck, C. (2004).  Living in several languages: implications for therapy.  Journal of Family Therapy, 26, 314 – 339.

Website

  • Carranza, M.E. (2012). Cross-border family therapy: an innovative approach to working with Latina refugee women in therapy. Women & Therapy, 35,1-2,57-67.

Website

  • Coulter, S. (2010). Systemic family therapy for families who have experienced trauma: A randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Social Work, 41, 502-519.

DOI

Website

Website

  • Dalgaard N. T.  et al. (2020). Interdisciplinary treatment of family violence in traumatized refugee families. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 16,1, 77-92.

DOI

Website

Website

  • De Haene, L., Rober, P., Adriaenssens, P., & Verschueren, K. (2012).  Voices of Dialogue and Directivity in Family Therapy with Refugees: evolving ideas about dialogical refuge care.  Family Process, 51, 391 - 404. 

Website

  • Figley, C. R., & Figley, K. R. (2009). Stemming the tide of trauma systemically: The role of family therapy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 30,3, 173-183.

Website

PDF

  • Gentlemen-Byers, J. (1996). Children of the stones: art therapy interventions in the West Bank. Art Therapy, 13,4, 238-243. doi: 10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231.

Website

  • German, M. (2008).  Educational psychologists promoting the emotional wellbeing and resilience of refugee parents.  Educational and Child Psychology, 25,2, 91 - 103.

ResearchGate

  • Goodkind J., LaNoue M., Lee C., Freeland L., & Freund R. (2012). Feasibility, acceptability, and initial findings from a community- based cultural mental health intervention for American Indian youth and their families. Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 381-405.

Website

  • Guregard, S., & Seikkula, J. (2014).  Establishing Therapeutic Dialogue with Refugee Families.  Contemporary Family Therapy, 36,1, 41-57.

Website

  • Isakson, B. L., Legerski, J. P., & Layne, C. M. (2015). Adapting and implementing evidence-based interventions for trauma-exposed refugee youth and families. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45,4, 245-253.

Website

  • Jarkman-Björn, G., Gustafsson, P. A., Sydsjö, G., & Berterö, C. (2013). Family therapy sessions with refugee families: a qualitative study. Conflict and Health, 7, 7.

Website

  • Kaplin, D. et al (2019). A review of the use of trauma systems therapy to treat refugee children, adolescents, and families.  Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 18,4, 417-431.  DOI: 10.1080/15289168.2019.1687220.

DOI

Website

  • Martin, P. (2012). 'Grief that has no vent in tears, makes other organs weep.' Seeking refuge from trauma in the medical setting. Journal of Child Psychotherapy. 38,1, 3-21. doi: 10.1080/0075417X.2011.651839.

Website

  • The National Child Traumatic Stress Network, NCTSN. (2016). Trauma Systems Therapy for Refugees, TST-R.

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