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Dr Kalok C Lee

Principal Lecturer

Architecture, Computing and Engineering (ACE)

Programme Leader, MEng/BEng (Hons) in Mechanical Engineering

    Kalok Lee was born in Hong Kong in 1964. He received a BEng degree in Mechanical Engineering from North East London Polytechnic (now known as University of East London) in 1988, and an MSc in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning from King's College London in 1989. He worked briefly in industry before rejoining King's College London in 1990 first as a Research Officer and subsequently as Research Associate, and received his PhD in 1995.

    From 1995 to 2010, he was a Lecturer, then Reader in Fluid Dynamics with the Division of Engineering, King's College London. He joined De Montfort University in 2010 as the Programme Leader of the undergraduate Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics programmes. He joined London South Bank University in 2014 first as the Course Director of the undergraduate Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics courses, and subsequently the Subject Area Leader, then Head of Division of Mechanical Engineering and Design. In 2015 he joined his alma mater, University of East London, as the Programme Leader of the new MEng/BEng Mechanical Engineering programme.

    He is a Senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy and an Associate Member of IMechE. he served on the College Research Ethics Committee of King's College London, and was an elected member of the EPSRC College. His main research interests include flows in internal combustion engine manifolds, ports and cylinders; velocity and mixing characteristics of mixing vessels; flow characteristics of drug delivery devices and inhalation mechanics. Kalok Lee has published many refereed conference and journal papers.



    Overview

    Research interests:

    • Flows in internal combustion engine manifolds, ports and cylinders
    • Velocity and mixing characteristics of mixing vessels
    • Flow characteristics of drug delivery devices
    • Respiratory mechanics


    Collaborators

    • test

    Research

    G. Albieri, S.J. Barnes, B. de Celis Alonso, C.E.J. Cheetham, C.E. Edwards, A.S. Lowe, H. Karunaratne, J.P. Dear, K.C. Lee and G.T. Finnerty. Rapid Bidirectional Reorganization of Cortical Microcircuits. Cerebral Cortex, doi:10.1093/cercor/bhu098, 2014.

    M. Harang, P. Royall, D. Murnane and K.C. Lee. The effect of actuation force on the in vitro deposition of particles emitted from pressurised metered dose inhalers. In Proc. Drug Delivery to the Lungs 24, 11–13 December 2012, Edinburgh, UK.

    M. Harang, G. Montante, K.C. Lee and A. Paglianti. Caratteristiche fluidodinamiche di getti generate da inalatori pressurizzati predosati (in Italian). In Proc. GRICU 2012, 20–23 September 2012, Montesilvano, Italy.

    [M. Harang, D. Murnane and K. C. Lee. Development of a computational model with predictive capabilities to describe actuation of pressurized metered dose inhalers. Proc. Drug Delivery to the Lungs - DDL21, 8–10 December 2010, Edinburgh.

    B. de Celis Alonso, A. S. Lowe, J. P. Dear, K. C. Lee, S. C. R. Williams, and G. T. Finnerty. Sensory inputs from whisking movements modify cortical whisker maps visualized with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebral Cortex, 18(6):1314–1325, 2008.

    S. R. Alty, W. D. Man, J. Moxham and K. C. Lee Denoising of diaphragmatic electromyogram signals for the control and diagnostic purposes. In Proc. 30th International Conference of the IEEE EMB, Vancouver, Canada, August, 2008.

    B. de Celis Alonso, A. S. Lowe, J. P. Dear, K. C. Lee, and G. T. Finnerty. BOLD fMRI reveals expansion of forepaw representations into whisker barrel cortex following innocuous whisker deprivation. In Poster paper in 6th FENS Forum, 12–16 July 2008.

    B. de Celis Alonso, A. S. Lowe, J. P. Dear, K. C. Lee, and G. T. Finnerty. Invasion of whisker cortical maps by adjacent forepaw representations visualized with BOLD fMRI. In Proc. ISMRM Annual Meeting 2008, Toronto, Canada, May 2008.

    B. de Celis Alonso, A. S. Lowe, J. P. Dear, K. C. Lee, and G. T. Finnerty. Experience-dependent plasticity of rat whisker cortical maps imaged with BOLD fMRI. In Proc. ISMRM-ESMRMB Joint Annual Meeting 2007, Berlin, Germany, May 2007.

    D. Fontana, M. Vanni, S. Kaul, K. C. Lee, andG. Baldi. Optimising delivery of bronchodilators during non- invasive lung ventilation. In Proc. ICheaP-7, 7th Italian Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering, Volume 6, pp. 779784, Giardini Naxos, Italy, 15-18 May 2005.

    D. Fontana, M. Vanni, G. Baldi, and K. Lee. Fluid dynamics modelling of particulate deposition in the lungs. In Proc. CRICU 2004, Naples, Italy, 12–15 September 2004.

    K. C. Lee, W. D. Man, and J. Moxham. Wavelet analysis of diaphragm EMG activity for the assessment of neural respiratory drive. In Poster paper in FENS Forum, 10–14 July 2004.

    W. D. Man, N. Mustafa, F. Harraf, E. Kondili, G.F. Rafferty, Y. M. Luo, K. C. Lee, M. I. Polkey, and J. Moxham. Quantification of the crural diaphragmatic compound muscle action potential. In Poster paper in ATS 2004, Orlando, USA, 21–26 May 2004.

    F. Harraf, W. D. Man, K. C. Lee, M. I. Polkey, J. Moxham, and L. Kalra. Cortical control of expiratory muscles and its impairment in acute stroke patients. In Poster paper in ATS 2004, Orlando, USA, 21–26 May 2004.

    S.L. Yeoh, G. Papadakis, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. Large eddy simulation of turbulent flow in a Rushton impeller stirred reactor with sliding-deforming mesh methodology. Chemical Engineering and Technology, 27:257–263, 2004.

    L. Nikiforaki, J. Yu, S. Baldi, B. Genenger, K. C. Lee, F. Durst, and M. Yianneskis. On the variation of precessional flow instabilities with operational parameters in stirred vessels. Chemical Engineering Journal, 102:217–231, 2004.

    M. Micheletti, S. Baldi, S. L. Yeoh, A. Ducci, G. Papadakis, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. On spatial and temporal variations and estimates of energy dissipation in stirred reactors. Transactions IChemE, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 82(A9):1188–98, 2004.

    C. Galletti, A.Paglianti, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. Reynolds number and impeller diameter effects on instabilities in stirred vessels. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal, 50(9):2050–63, 2004.

    M. Micheletti, L. Nikiforaki, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. Integral parameter and local concentration characteristics of moderate to dense solid-liquid suspensions. In Proc. 11th European Conference on Mixing, pages 395–404, Bamberg, Germany, 14–17 October 2003.

    C. Galletti, E. Brunazzi, K. C. Lee, A.Paglianti, and M. Yianneskis. Flow transitions and instabilities stem- ming from clearance variations in stirred vessels. In Proc. ICheaP-6, The Sixth Italian Conference on Chem- ical and Process Engineering, Pisa, Italy, 8 –11 June 2003.

    C. Galletti, K. C. Lee, A.Paglianti, and M. Yianneskis. Macro-instability phenomena in the laminar, transi- tional and turbulent flow regimes. In Proc. 11th European Conference on Mixing, pages 307–314, Bamberg, Germany, 14–17 October 2003.

    E. Saatci, D. Miller, I. M. Stell, K. C. Lee, and J. Moxham. Dynamic dead space in facemasks used with non-invasive ventilators. Journal of European Respiratory Society, 23:1–7, 2003.

    L. Nikiforaki, G. Montante, K.C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. On the origin, frequency and magnitude of macro-instabilities of the flows in stirred vessels. Chemical Engineering Science, 58:2937–49, 2003.

    M. Micheletti, L.Nikiforaki, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. Particle concentration and mixing characteristics of moderate-to-dense solid-liquid suspensions. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 42:6236–49, 2003.

    A. Ramadan, S. Michelet, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. In-plan quantification of 3-d velocities and turbulence intensities using a flow visualisation technique. In Proc. CHISA Conference, Prague, August 2002.

    A. Ramadan, S. Michelet, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. A novel 3-d flow visualisation technique. In Proc. 1st International Conference on Optical and Laser Diagnostics (ICOLAD 2002), London, 16–20 December 2002.

    W. Baier, J. Schneider, N. St. Hill, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. Evaluation of new concepts for DGI engines by means of experiments and CFD simulation. In Proc. Japan Society of Automotive Engineers Congress, pages 1–5, Paper 20015328, Yokohama, Japan, 23–25 May 2001.

    I. M. Stell, G. Paul, K. C. Lee, J. Ponte, and J. Moxham. Non-invasive ventilation triggering in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a test-lung comparison. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 164:2092–7, 2001.

    G. Montante, K. C. Lee, A. Brucato, and M. Yianneskis. Experiments and predictions of the transition of the flow pattern with impeller clearance in stirred tanks. Computers and Chemical Engineering, 25:729–735, 2001.

    G. Montante, K. C. Lee, A. Brucato, and M. Yianneskis. Numerical simulations of the dependency of flow pattern on impeller clearance in stirred vessels. Chemical Engineering Science, 56:3751–3770, 2001.

    W. Chong, K. C. Lee, I. M. Stell, and K. Hamnegard. Measuring intrathoracic pressure in the acutely ill: a new device. In The Faculty of Accident and Emergency Medicine Annual Scientific Meeting, The Royal College of Surgeons England, 17 November 2001. (Delivered, not refereed).

    I. M. Stell, G. Paul, K. C. Lee, J. Ponte, and J. Moxham. Test lung study of the effects of airway resis- tance, functional residual capacity, tidal volume and mask leaks on the triggering of non-invasive ventilators. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 161:A554, 2000.

    P. Asadamongkon, N. St. Hill, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. On the turbulence and cyclic variation in internal combustion engine cylinders. In IMechE Conference Transactions 2000-8. International Conference on Computational and Experimental Methods in Reciprocating Engines, pages 79–88, London, 1–2 November 2000. Professional Engineering Publishing Ltd.

    G. Montante, K. C. Lee, A. Brucato, and M. Yianneskis. Experiments and predictions of the transition of the flow pattern with impeller clearance in stirred tanks. In Proc. of European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering-10—Proceedings Supplement Volume, pages 89–96, Florence, Italy, 7–10 May 2000.

    N. St. Hill, P. Asadamongkon, and K. C. Lee. On the magnitude of cyclic variation in a motored optical engine. In Proc. Tenth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, pages 22.4.1–22.4.12 (CD–ROM), Lisbon, Portugal, 10–13 July 2000.

    K. C. Lee, N. A. Borrett, and M. Yianneskis. Turbulence structure and isotropy in stirred vessels. In B. Sen Gupta and S. Ibrahim, editors, Mixing and Crystallization, pages 29–40. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 2000.

    L. Nikiforaki, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. Ciculation time measurements with miniature radio frequency identification devices. In Fluid Mixing 6, IChemE Symposium Series No. 146, pages 47–57, Bradford, 7–8 July 1999.

    G. Montante and K. C. Lee. Liquid and solid particle mean flow and turbulence levels in a stirred vessel with low impeller clearance. In Fluid Mixing 6, IChemE Symposium Series No. 146, pages 305–316, Bradford, 7–8 July 1999.

    N. J. Fentiman, K. C. Lee, G. R. Paul, and M. Yianneskis. The trailing vortex structure around hydrofoil impeller blades. Trans. Institution of Chemical Engineers (Part A), Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 77:731–740, 1999.

    G. Montante, K. C. Lee, A. Brucato, and M. Yianneskis. Double- to single-loop flow pattern transition in stirred vessels. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 77:649–659, 1999.

    G. Montante, K. C. Lee, A. Brucato, and M. Yianneskis. Misure LDA e simulazioni CFD della transizione doppio-singolo angello in recipienti agitati. In Proc. Congresso GRICU 1998, pages 241–244, Ferrara, Italy, 23–25 September 1998.

    K. C. Lee. Measurement of the mixing characteristics of a stirred vessel with a liquid crystal technique. In Proc. Ninth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, pages 14.3.1–14.3.8, Lisbon, Portugal, 13–16 July 1998.

    K. C. Lee, N. A. Borrett, and M. Yianneskis. Turbulence structure and isotropy in stirred vessels. In Proc. International Conference on Mixing and Crystallization, pages 1–12, Paper 4, Tioman, Malaysia, 22–25 April 1998.

    N. J. Fentiman, N. St. Hill, K. C. Lee, G. R. Paul, and M. Yianneskis. A novel profiled blade impeller for homogenisation of miscible liquids in stirred vessels. Trans. Institution of Chemical Engineers (Part A), Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 76:835–842, 1998.

    K. Ng, N. J. Fentiman, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. Assessment of sliding mesh CFD predictions and LDA measurements of the flow in a tank stirred by a Rushton impeller. Trans. Institution of Chemical Engineers (Part A), Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 76:737–747, 1998.

    K. C. Lee and M. Yianneskis. Turbulence properties of the impeller stream of a Rushton turbine. American Institution of Chemical Engineers Journal, 44(1):13–24, 1998.

    K. C. Lee and M. Yianneskis. Measurement of temperature and mixing time in stirred vessels with liquid crystal thermography. In European Mixing IX Symposium, volume 11(51) of Recents Progres en Genie des Procedes, pages 121–128, Paris, 12–21 March 1997.

    K. C. Lee and M. Yianneskis. A liquid crystal thermographic technique for the measurement of mixing characteristics in stirred vessels. Trans. Institution of Chemical Engineers (Part A), Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 75:746–754, 1997.

    N. J. Fentiman, N. A. Borrett, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. The decay of trailing vortices from impeller blades. In Proc. Eighth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, pages 8.5.1–8.5.8, Lisbon, Portugal, 8–11 July 1996.

    K. C. Lee, K. Ng, M. Yianneskis, F. Lange, and R. Sanatian. Sliding mesh predictions of the flows around Rushton impellers. In H. Benkreira, editor, Fluid Mixing 5, IChemE Symposium Series No. 140, pages 47–58. Institution of Chemical Engineers, Bradford, 4–5 July 1996.

    K. C. Lee, K. O. Suen, M. Yianneskis, and C. Marriott. Investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of inhaler aerosols with an inhalation simulation machine. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 130:103– 113, 1996.

    K. Rutherford, S. M. S. Mahmoudi, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. The effect of Rushton impeller blade and disk thickness on the mixing characteristics of stirred vessels. Trans. Institution of Chemical Engineers (Part A), Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 74:369–378, 1996.

    K. Rutherford, K. C. Lee, S. M. S. Mahmoudi, and M. Yianneskis. Aspects of the hydrodynamic characteristics of dual impeller stirred reactors. American Institute of Chemical Engineers Journal, 42(2):332–346, 1996.

    K. C. Lee, K. Rutherford, and M. Yianneskis. A comparison of time-resolved, angle-resolved and ensemble- averaged LDA measurements in stirred reactors. In Proc. Institution of Chemical Engineers 1995 Research Event, pages 617–619, Edinburgh, 5–6 January 1995.

    A. Chen, K. C. Lee, M. Yianneskis, and G. Ganti. Velocity characteristics of steady flow through a straight inlet port. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 21:571–590, 1995.

    K. Rutherford, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. The interaction of the trailing vortex streams from Rushton turbine blades. In Proc. Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, volume I, pages 10.2.1–10.2.7, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1994.

    D. P. E. Foster, K. C. Lee, M. Yianneskis, and G. Ganti. Investigation of the flows through two production catalytic converters. In Proc. Seventh International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, volume II, pages 36.2.1–36.2.8, Lisbon, Portugal, July 1994.

    S.M.S. Mahmoudi, K. Rutherford, K.C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. A study of the turbulence characteristics of dual-impeller systems using LDA. In Proc. Eighth European Conference on Mixing, Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 136, pages 137–145, Cambridge, UK, 21–23 September 1994.

    K. C. Lee and M. Yianneskis. Mixing characteristics of a stirred reactor with an axial flow impeller. In Proc. Eighth European Conference on Mixing, Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 136, pages 503–509, Cambridge, UK, 21–23 September 1994.

    A. Chen, G. Ganti, K.C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. A comparison of CFD predictions and LDA measurements of the flow through a generic inlet port. In Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, volume 64(8), pages 85–93. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1994.

    K. C. Lee and M. Yianneskis. Temperature measurements in stirred vessels with liquid crystal tracers. In Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, volume 64(5), pages 487–494. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1994.

    M. Yianneskis, K. C. Lee, C. Marriott, and G. Martin. Determination of the flow and turbulence characteristics of dry powder inhaler aerosols with laser-Doppler anemometry. In P. Byron and S. Farr, editors, Respiratory Drug Delivery IV, pages 97–107, Richmond, Virginia, 2–6 May 1994. (Invited paper).

    K. Rutherford, S. M. S. Mahmoudi, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. A study of the flows induced by a pitched blade/Rushton dual impeller system with LDA and flow visualisation. In Proc. Institution of Chemical Engineers 1994 Research Event, pages 1014–1016, London, 5–6 January 1994.

    K. C. Lee and M. Yianneskis. The extent of periodicity of the flow in vessels stirred by Rushton impellers. In G. Tatterson, R. Calabrese, and W. R. Penney, editors, Industrial Mixing Technology: Chemical and Bio- logical Applications, volume 90 of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Series, pages 5–18. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 1994.

    M. P. Timsina, G. P. Martin, C. Marriott, D. Ganderton, K. C. Lee, K. O. Suen, and M. Yianneskis. Studies on the effect of dry powder inhalers upon peak inspiratory flow (PIF) in volunteers. Journal of Aerosol Medicine (Supplement), 6:41, 1993.

    K. C. Lee, K. O. Suen, M. Yianneskis, M. Timsina, G. P. Martin, C. Marriott, and D. Ganderton. Flow characteristics of dry powder inhalers. Journal of Aerosol Medicine (Supplement), 6:41, 1993.

    K. C. Lee, S. M. S. Mahmoudi, and M. Yianneskis. Mean flow and turbulence energy distribution in vessels stirred by two Rushton impellers. In Proc. 1993 Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, St. Louis, Missouri, 7–12 November 1993.

    M. Yianneskis, K.C. Lee, W.J. Easson, D.R. McCluskey, and A.K. Hind. Investigation of flow variationsin inlet ports with particle image and laser velocimetry techniques. In Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1993—Experimental and Predictive Methods in Engines Research and Development, pages 273–282, 1993.

    K. C. Lee, K. O. Suen, M. Yianneskis, M. Timsina, G. P. Martin, C. Marriott, and D. Ganderton. Turbulence generation in dry powder inhalers. In J. Hodgroft, I. W. Kellaway, and G. D. Farr, editors, Proc. Second Annual Conference of the UK Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists, page 73. STS Publishing, Cardiff, Exeter, 5–8 April 1993. (Abstract).

    K. C. Lee and M. Yianneskis. An image processing technique for the analysis of thermotic distributions utilising liquid crystals. In S. Sideman and K. Hijikata, editors, Imaging in Transport Processes, chapter 16, pages 195–202. Begell House Inc., New York, 1993.

    M.P. Timsina, G. Martin, C. Marriott, K.C. Lee, K.O. Suen, and M. Yianneskis. Studies on the measurement of peak inspiratory flow rate (PIF) with dry powder inhaler devices in healthy volunteers. Thorax, 48:433, 1992.

    K. C. Lee, K. O. Suen, M. Yianneskis, and G. Ganti. Steady flow characteristics of two generic ports. In Proc. Sixth International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, pages 29.4.1– 29.4.7, Lisbon, July 1992.

    K. C. Lee, A. R. Najafabadi, K. O. Suen, D. Ganderton, and M. Yianneskis. The generation of aerosols for therapeutic use from a pressurised inhaler. In W. Balachandran, editor, Sprays and Aerosols 91, pages 1–6, 1991.

    R. Gomiciaga, K. C. Lee, and M. Yianneskis. Development of a liquid crystal thermographic technique using video image processing. In Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium on Developments in Heat Transfer, Nottingham, 20 June 1991. (Delivered, not refereed).

    K. C. Lee, K. O. Suen, and M. Yianneskis. Characterisation of evaporating sprays from metered-dose inhalers by LDA. In A. Dybbs and B. Ghorashi, editors, Laser Anemometry—Advances and Applications 1991, volume 2, pages 563–570, New York, 1991. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

    A. R. Najafabadi, K. C. Lee, M. Yianneskis, K. O. Suen, and D. Ganderton. The influence of surfactant concentration and vapour pressure on the velocity of droplets produced by a metered dose inhaler. In The Aerosol Society Meeting on Drug Delivery to the Lungs II, Loughborough, December 1990. (Abstract, not refereed).

    Publications

    • Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Principles
    • Dynamics and Control
    • Finite Element Analysis
    • Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Teaching