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Dr Sarah Jane Fox

Director and Deputy Director

(London Focused) Policing Research Network (LPRN) , Centre of Professional Policing (Director) Online Harms and Cyber Crime Unit (Co-Director) Institute of Connected Communities (Deputy-Director)

  • University of East London
    Stratford Campus
    Water Lane
    London, E15 4LZ
    United Kingdom
    E15 4LZ
  • s.j.fox@uel.ac.uk
    Dr Sarah Jane Fox is the Director of the Centre of Professional Policing and the co-Director for the Online Harms and Cyber Crime Unit.  She is also the Deputy Director of the Institute of Connected Communities.

    Sarah specialises in law (policy); policing; movement/transport and cyber research She began her early career in transport before moving into policing and Law enforcement.

    Sarah holds a PhD in law whereby her research related to cross border enforcement and the implications (challenges) of the movement of people across set boundaries into other jurisdictions. This has now been extended into the area of cyberspace. Sarah has also, academically and in practice, specialised in the areas of transport/travel; equality/rights; serious and organised crime (including terrorism – across borders), sexual offences and domestic abuse.

    In 2015-16 Sarah was awarded the distinguished Fulbright Commission post-doctoral research scholarship, through the discipline of law, which was also co-supported by Lloyd’s of London. Her research professorship, in the USA, related to threats and risks to critical national infrastructures, in particular, her focus related to transport modes and systems.  

    Sarah has also worked in senior management roles, as a legal and practice consultant and adviser to a number of government departments and advisory boards relating to policing, transport and security (both in the UK; Europe and International). She holds numerous professional, management and academic memberships and qualifications across these fields.

    Sarah is active and experienced in community/stakeholder/partnership engagement/management.

    Sarah is currently a member/expert adviser of a number of (UK/EU) law enforcement bodies, she also sits as a Trustee on the Lloyd’s Tercentenary Research Foundation Board (as of 2017) and remains a Fellow of the University of Liverpool (law). Additionally, she is a consultant-adviser to MAVCOM and a listed expert with the EU/UK Parliament.  She also sits as a member of the International Advisory Committee of the International Commission on Cyber Security Law.

    She has made a number of keynote speeches and presentations at various distinguished events, such as the United Nations; Council of Europe and other EU (Europol) sessions/meetings.

    Sarah has worked extensively in training and curriculum development both in the UK and overseas (specialising in work-based (professional practice) online and blended delivery methods). She is currently the Programme Director in the area of policing and she reviews and develops (innovative) curriculum in line with the changing needs of policing.  This also ties into one of her on-going research areas, which considers the professionalism and accountability of the police and the continually developing role and needs of, and for, modern day policing.  

    Much of Sarah’s current research focuses on technology (challenges and opportunities) and society; including transport modes and autonomous systems – such as drones; space use; cyber perpetration and penetration and evolution/revolution (societal acceptance).

    This encompasses:
    policing in a new technological age; safety and security; and terrorism risk factors; cross border movement (monitoring and enforcement); and, the lack of governance and coordination to adequately prevent, protect, pursue and respond in today’s modern (cyber) world.
    Sarah’s research also reasons in conflicts and paradoxes – for example, between ‘human rights and security,’ and ‘opportunities and challenges’, where, on the one hand, there remains, (including through the cyberspace) the opportunity to collaborate and coordinate with relative ease, yet, on the other hand, there remains limitation set by man-made boundaries. 

    Sarah is a Visiting Professor at DePaul University, Chicago, USA.


    - PhD (Law); LLM (distinction); TESOL; DiP Di & CPC; FHEA; FCMI; FRSA; FCILT; 
    - FCMI – Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute; 
    - FCILT – Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Logistics & Transport; 
    - FHEA – Fellow of the Higher Education Academy; 
    - MCIHT – Member of the Chartered Institution of Highways & Transportation; 
    - Member of the European Association of Airport and Seaport Police; 
    - MEALA – European Aviation Law Association; 
    - Fellow – Royal Society of Arts; 
    - Fellow of the University of Liverpool (Law); 
    - Member of the Institute of Transport Managers; 
    - Member of the Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) – International; 
    - Member College of Policing – Full Police Membership; 
    - Lloyd's Of London (Lloyd's Tercentenary Research Foundation - LTRF); 
    - An adviser to the UK Select Committee and EU Parliament; 
     (Also an adviser to MAVCOM (Malaysian Aviation Commission) 

    Overview

    Current Research

    Sarah’s current research focuses on technology (challenges and opportunities) and society; including transport modes and autonomous systems – such as drones (UAV’s); aviation; space use; cyber perpetration and penetration and evolution/revolution (societal acceptance).

    This encompasses:
    Policing in a new technological age; safety and security; and terrorism risk factors; cross border movement (monitoring and enforcement); and, the lack of governance and coordination to adequately prevent, protect, pursue and respond in today’s modern (cyber) world.
    Sarah’s research also reasons in conflicts and paradoxes – for example, between ‘human rights and security,’ and ‘opportunities and challenges’, where, on the one hand, there remains, (including through the cyberspace) the opportunity to collaborate and coordinate with relative ease, yet, on the other hand, there remains limitation set by man-made boundaries. 


    Research

    Journal Papers

    Tracking the position: Global satellite navigations in Europe. Expanding man's understanding ‘GALILEO: 2020!’

    Fox, S. J.. (in press) December 2020. Comunications Law.

    An ‘obligation’ to provide air travel: In the Covid-19 era (A European perspective) (in press) Issues in Aviation Law and Policy

    Fox, S. J.. (in press) Autumn 2020.

    EU Air Passengers’ Rights Past, Present, and Future: In an Uncertain World (Regulation (EC) 261/2004: Evaluation and Case Study), 85 J. Air L. & Com

    Fox, S. J. & Martín-Domingo, L. (in press) September 2020.

    The ‘risk’ of disruptive technology today (A case study of aviation – Enter the drone), Technology in Society (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101304.

    Fox, S. J. 2020.

    Policing Mining: in outer-space Greed and Domination vs. Peace and Equity A governance for humanity! Resources Policy 64 101517 (online – viewable at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301420719306701?dgcid=author

    Fox, S. J. 2019/2020.

    EU Enforcement Mechanisms: Passenger Rights EC Regulation 261/2004. Annals of Air and Space Law. XLIII

    Fox, S. J. & Martín-Domingo, L. 2019. pp. 167-202.

    Positioning the Drone:  Policing the Risky Skies, Issues in Aviation Law and Policy. Volume 18, Issue 2.

    Fox, S. J. 2019. pp 295-332.

    Policing aviation and keeping peace: intelligence-fed security. International Journal on World Peace. Vol. XXXVI, No.1 

    Fox, S. J. March 2019. pp. 63-92.

    Policing - the technological revolution: Opportunities & Challenges! ….. Technology in Society https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2018.09.006 (online).  

    Fox, S. J. 2018. Printed in Technology in Society 56 (2019). (Linked to presentation at the UN – March 2018). pp. 69-78.

    “Mobility and Movement Are ‘Our’ Fundamental Rights”. . . Safety & Security – Risk, Choice & Conflict! Issues in Aviation Law and Policy. Volume 17 No. 1.

    Fox, S. J. Autumn 2017. pp 7-43.

    Borderless skies! Sovereign dominance, Regionalism: Lessons from Europe. IJWP, Vol. XXXIV, No. 4

    Fox, S. J. 2017. pp. 9-41.

    THE RISE OF THE DRONES: Framework and Governance – Why risk it! 82 J. Air L. & Com.

    Fox, S. J. 2017. pp. 683-715.

    The skies the limit! Collaborating to open the skies with China – Challenges and opportunities.  European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance – 4 

    Fox, S. J. & Ismail, R. 2017. pp. 387-422.

    The skies the limit! – Open Skies with limitations.European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance. Vol. 4

    Fox, S. J. & Ismail, R. 2017. pp. 7-42.

    Green and level playing fields: A paradox of virtues. DUMPING – Anti-competitiveness. Int. J. Public Law and Policy, Vol. 5, No. 4

    Fox, S. J. 2016. pp. 333-367.

    BREXIT: A bolt from the blue! – Red sky in the morning? Issues in Aviation Law and Policy. Volume 16, No. 1.

    Fox, S. J. Autumn 2016. pp. 83-119.

    Flying challenges for the future: Aviation preparedness – in the face of cyber-terrorism. Journal of Transportation Security. (Part delivered to UN – see below) First published online Sept. 2016. Vol 9, Issue 3

    Fox, S. J. December 2016 (First published online Sept. 2016). pp. 191–218.

    SPACE: The race for mineral rights. ‘The sky is no longer the limit.’ Lessons from Earth. Resources Policy (2016) Vol. 49

    Fox, S. J. September 2016. pp. 165-178.

    Aligning (EU) Policies: A flying reform in Higher Education - The development of aviation professionals. International Journal of Aviation Management, Vol. 3, No. 1.

    Fox, S. J. 2016.

    Single European Skies: functional airspace blocks: Delays and Responses. Air and Space Law. Vol. 41, no. 3

    Fox, S. J. 2016. pp. 201-228.

    ASEAN Open Skies – Aviation Development in 2015: ‘Blue or cloudy skies? Annals of Air and Space Law. Vol. XL

    Fox, S. J. & Ismail, R.,. 2016. pp. 607-654.

    ‘To practice justice and right’ – international aviation liability: have lessons been learnt? International Journal of Public Law and Policy, (2015) Vol. 5, No. 2, DOI: 10.1504/1JPLAP.2015.071027

    Fox, S. J. 2015. pp. 162-182.

    ‘CONTEST’ing Chicago. Origins and Reflections: Lest we forget! International Journal of Private Law, (2015) Vol. 8, No. 1

    Fox, S. J. 2015. pp. 73-98.

    The evolution of aviation: In times of war and peace – blood tears and salvation! International Journal on World Peace (2014) Vol. XXXI No. 4  

    Fox, S. J. December 2014. pp. 49-79.

    ‘Safety & Security: The influence of 9/11 to the EU Framework.’ Research in Transportation Economics – Special Edition DOI: 10.1016/j.retrec.2014.07.004 Vol. 45

    Fox, S. J. 2014. pp. 24-33.

    ‘Following carbon footprints.’ FOCUS (CILT). Vol. 13. 11.

    Fox, S. J. 2011.

    Press Papers

    Struggling in a period of uncertainty: Flying the flag for ‘business’ unity (10 April, 2019)
    https://www.financialdirector.co.uk/2019/04/08/flying-the-flag-for-business-unity-in-a-period-of-uncertainty/

    Blueline: Degree students learn crime prevention from the Met
    https://www.bluelinejobs.co.uk/news/news_article/103794

    UEL internal Press articles

    Students support charity's bid to raise awareness of the need to chat
    https://www.uel.ac.uk/news/2020/01/brew_monday

    Published Articles Blue-Line police/criminal justice publications (2004-2008) (Police & Criminal Justice) Commissioned publications

    S. J. Fox; ‘United yet still divided’
    S. J. Fox; ‘To Protect and Serve’
    S. J. Fox; ‘Hold the front page’
    S. J. Fox; ‘Fact or fiction’

     

    NOTE: Commissioned publications (other)
    Springer group and Etrasa: Numerous legal and educational / material, textbooks and test papers etc.
    - Approx. 8-10 publications: 2003-2009

    Book contributor / chapters

    Legal Risk Management, Governance and Compliance

    Fox, S. J. 2016. Globe Law and Business (Transport related).

    Future Trends: Preventative Security

    Fox, S. J. in press. Edward Elgar Law/Legal Reference Series .

    Expert Panel events/presentations

    2008-2015

    EU Brussels (DG Transport & Energy Commission) – ‘Road Safety Enforcement in the EU’

    S. J. Fox. 2007.

    The 7th International Forum on Air Transport in Remoter Regions (Newquay – UK) ‘Environment and Sustainability: Do they matter to air services to the Orkney Islands?’ 

    Flickr

    S. J. Fox. 2011.

    ‘Legislative implications (conflict of free movement v. safety/security) with driver licence tourism. The European Transport Conference (ETC)

    S. J. Fox. 2011.

    International Aviation Conference (Bordeaux) France – Old and New Threats: Blood, tears and salvation! 

    S. J. Fox. 2014.

    ASEAN: Can lessons be learnt from the EU framework – Malaysia Sept. 2014 (Inaugural conference – first speaker)

    S. J. Fox. 2014.

     A flying reform in Higher Education: Recognising and developing opportunities across borders. Singapore ATRS 

    S. J. Fox. 2015.

     ASEAN – The developments in ASEAN Open-Skies. Singapore ATRS

    S. J. Fox & R. Ismail. 2015.

    2016

    (resulting in conference/journal papers)  

    Challenges for the future: preparedness! – In the face of cyber-terrorism. Safety, Security and Disasters. WSIS Forum EC Medici Framework. – UN, Geneva

    S. J. Fox. 2-6 May 2016.

    The skies the limit! Collaborating to open the skies with CHINA – Challenges and opportunities. Shanghai International Forum on aviation law, China.  

    S. J. Fox. 10 May, 2016.

    Flying high amongst its competitors? EU Aviation – a paradoxical tale! The Future of European Law and Policy: 5th Conference on European Law and Policy in Context

    S. J. Fox. June, 2016. Birmingham University.

    ATRS – Rhodes Island, Greece (World Conference on Transport Research and Air Transport Research Society Conferences)

    S. J. Fox. June 23-26, 2016.

    'Aviation: metal neutral!' Sovereignty, risk, and protectionism vs. transnationalism, risk, and globalisation' – Shanghai, China, 14th World Conference on Transport Research

    S. J. Fox. 10-15 July 2016.

     – The skies the limit – Open Skies with limitations! Shanghai, China,14th World Conference on Transport Research

    S.J. Fox & R. Ismail. 10-15 July 2016.

     2017

    (resulting in conference/journal papers)

    Hacked Off – by the drive for autonomy. Safety, Security and Disasters. WSIS Forum EC Medici Framework. – UN, Geneva.

    S.J. Fox. 12-16 June, 2017.

    2018

    (resulting in conference/journal papers)

    Policing Society: Utilising “cool gadgets and tools.” Safety, Security and Disasters. WSIS Forum EC Medici Framework. – UN, Geneva (see above publication).

    S. J. Fox. 19-23 March, 2018.

    Policing challenges in the Cyber and Autonomous era (Cybercrimes: Emerging Trends…… and developing risks). International Conference on Cyberlaw, Cybercrime and Cyber Security. New Delhi, India.

    S. J. Fox. 14–16th November, 2018.

    ‘Cyber governance’ Jurisdiction and Boundaries - Diplomacy? - A question of willing! International Conference on Cyberlaw, Cybercrime and Cyber Security. New Delhi, India.

    S. J. Fox. 14–16th November, 2018.

    Privacy in Cyberspace – A question of Balance? Conference on Cyberlaw, Cybercrime and Cyber Security. New Delhi, India.

    S. J. Fox. 14–16th November, 2018.

    2019

    “Albert Einstein to be my pilot” For the greater good - a question of trust! WSIS Forum EC Medici Framework. – UN, Geneva.

    S. J. Fox. 8-12 March 2019.

    Policing Challenges (Airports) – Plenary Congress, (Europol) Portugal

    S. J. Fox. 8-12 March 2019.

    Policing the Drone Era – Malta, (Council of Europe)

    S. J. Fox. 25-29 November 2019.

    United Nations discussions (UN, Geneva) – 8-12 March, 2019

    • Road-testing Governance models with the Secretary-General’s model with the Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation

    • Invited discussions to: Growing Global Challenges of Internet Addiction – Impact to the Youth and a Nation

    2020 – United Nations

    Cyberlaw, Cybercrime & Cybersecurity: Expert Panel and Presentation (challenges in a Covid-19 environment)

    13 July 2020.

    Canada: McGill IASL/IASSS

    "The Quest for a Legal Frontier between Airspace and Outer Space"

    31 July 2020.

    Publications

    Funding

    - Enhanced Student Experience development for: (£25,000)
      - Technology Enhanced Learning embedded within curriculum design
      - Curriculum development to meet industry needs (work-based learning, research developments, professional practice development, work-based skills assessments, online developments, etc.).
    - US-UK Fulbright Commission: Post-Doctoral Professorship/Research USA 2015/2016. 
    (Supported by Lloyd’s of London)

    In her government and consultancy roles, she has obtained and led/managed funded projects to the value of circa 2.5-3-million pounds.  This has included Scottish Government funding and EU (ERDF) funding. 

    In 2017-2018 she led the policing development (best practices in apprenticeships: across public services) research contract at Middlesex University as part of the HEFCE-DADF2 to Middlesex university 2017-2018 (£250,000).

    Due to her specialist research expertise she has also contributed to a number of projects.

    Projects: Intelligent transport systems; transport and enforcement management; sustainable and efficient/effective transport solutions; safe, secure and dependable transport; aviation and drone (UAV framework – risk – safety and security); Connectivity (UK, EU and International); (police) driver training and safety (including for emergency services) comparison of policing and fire service models/modelling and management in organisations (including change management and risk management):


    Examples:

    - AUSTRIATECH - GESELLSCHAFT DES BUNDES FUR TECHNOLOGIEPOLITISCHE MASSNAHMEN GMBH (LOGMAN) - FP7-TRANSPORT - Specific Programme "Cooperation": Transport (including        Aeronautics)
    - Project OPTIC
    - Lord Shipley’s task force – for connectivity in the UK (http://www.nationalconnectivitytaskforce.co.uk/index.html
    - Advisory Board: HiTrans;
    - EU transport policy and related legislation / EU Liaison; 
    - Risk assessment & management EqIA; EIA; SEA (STAG/LATIS) – And Community Engagement;
    - Defence planning (CPNI) (re flooding, security, safety); 
    - Partnership/stakeholder Management (Police, Fire Service, NHS, SAAS, Highlands and Islands, Scottish Islands);
    - Procurement (tender) adviser: Scottish Islands Life-Line services;
    - The revision of police and fire service provisions (reforms): The Christie Commission


    Funding

    Sarah’s research interest tie directly into her learning and teaching areas – namely, the professionalism and accountability of the police and the continually developing role and needs of, and for, modern day policing. Sarah’s other current research areas are: - policing in a new technological (cyber) age; security and terrorism risk factors (prevent, protect, pursue and respond in today’s modern (cyber) world);  - conflicts and paradoxes – for example, between ‘human rights and security,’ and ‘opportunities and challenges;’ - borders, governance and accountability; - transport (safety, security and cross border movement/enforcement). 

    Interests

    Teaching

    Teaching