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Rupasinghe, K.A.B.S; Brimicombe A.J. and Li, Y. (2012) "An approach to data enrichment of building features using Delaunay triangulation for automatic map generalization" in Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 20th Annual Conference, Lancaster, Lancaster University: 235-240

Automatic map generalization is a difficult task due to the contextual nature of the spatial objects represented on maps and has been the focus of much research. Understanding such contextual spatial relationships is critical to determine how map generalization is applied to spatial features on the map, considering their role, meaning and the context. Existing geographic databases lack functionality for extracting such spatial relationships in the form of auxiliary data, although researchers have explored spatial structures using various algorithms in computational geometry to enhance the spatial relations between features. The process of adding such auxiliary data to a data base is called data enrichment. This paper introduces a reliable geometrical data structure using Delaunay triangulation as a means of enriching databases of polygonal building features with the necessary auxiliary data.

Li, Y. and Brimicombe A.J. (2012) "Mobile Geographic Information Systems" In Ubiquitous Positioning and Mobile Location-based Services in Smart Phones, IGI Global, 230-253

The concept of Mobile Geographical Information Systems (Mobile GIS) is introduced as an evolution of conventional GIS to being available on wireless mobile devices such as smart phones. The evolution of the technology and its applications are charted in this Chapter. The main elements of Mobile GIS are then discussed. This focuses on: GIS servers; wireless mobile telecommunication networks; wireless mobile devices; location-awareness technology; and gateway services. This is followed by a discussion of the main features in terms of the services and usage of Mobile GIS: mobility; real-time connectivity; location-awareness; broadened usage. Mobile GIS are an important facilitating technology for Location-Based Services (LBS). A range of applications of Mobile GIS for smart phones are described. The Chapter closes with a discussion of the prospects and challenges for Mobile GIS. Challenges derive from four broad areas: limitations that derive from the technologies being used; areas of GIScience that still need to be adequately researched; users; and business models for a sustainable presence

Brimicombe, A.J. and Li, C. (2009) Location-Based Services and Geo-Information Engineering, Wiley, Chichester.

Location-Based Services (LSB) are the delivery of data and information services where the content of those services is tailored to the current location and context of a mobile user. This is a new and fast-growing technology sector incorporating GIS, wireless technologies, positioning systems and mobile human-computer interaction. Geo-Information (GI) Engineering is the design of dependably engineered solutions to society's use of geographical information and underpins applications such as LBS. These are brought together in this comprehensive text that takes the reader through from source data to product delivery. This book will appeal to professionals and researchers in the areas of GIS, mobile telecommunications services and LSB. It provides a comprehensive view and in-depth knowledge for academia and industry alike. It serves as essential reading and an excellent resource for final year undergraduate and postgraduate students in GIScience, Geography, Mobile Computing or Information Systems who wish to develop their understanding of LBS

Ekpenyong, F.; Brimicombe, A.J. and Palmer-Brown, D.(2009) “Extracting road information from recorded GPS data using snap-drift neural network” Neurocomputing 73: 24-36

Ijeh, A.; Brimicombe, A.J.; Preston, D.S. and Imafidon, C.O. (2009) “Geofencing in a security strategy model” In Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (eds. Jahankhani, H.; Hassami, A. & Hsu, F.), Springer, Berlin: 104-111

Brimicombe, A.J. (2008) “Location-Based Services and GIS” In The Handbook of Geographical Information Science (eds. Wilson & Fotheringham), Blackwell, Oxford: 581-595

In this chapter, I set the context for the emergence of location-based services (LBS) as an application of GIS. LBS can then be defined and placed alongside othe GIS-based technologies. I explore some of the data implications of LBS, how LBS users are positioned so that the system knows where they are and how queries can be expedited. I then explore some applications of LBS and conclude by reading some of the signposts as to what lies on the road ahead. LBS is a newly emerging technology and as with most other technologies we cannot be sure where it will lead us. All I can do here is reveal what is known, cut through the inevitable hype and scan the horizon of our possible futures. But one thing is for sure, LBS is an application of exciting potential which integrates nearly all aspects of geo information science presented in the other chapters of this book.

Ekpenyong, F.; Brimicombe, A.J. and Palmer-Brown, D.(2007) “Updating road network databases: road segment groupings using snap-drift neural network” Proceedings GISRUK 2007, Maynooth: 471-476

Ekpenyong, F.; Palmer-Brown, D. and Brimicombe, A.J. (2007) “Updating of road network databases: spatio-temporal trajectory grouping using snap-drift neural networks” Proceedings 10th International Conference on Engineering Applications of Neural Networks (EANN 2007), Thessaloniki, Greece: 237-246


Brimicombe, A.J. and Li, Y (2006) "Mobile Space-Time Envelopes for Location-Based Services" Transactions in GIS 10(1): 5-23

The convergence and miniaturisation of a range of information and communication technologies, together with increasing bandwidth availability and near ubiquity of mobile phones, are giving rise to a technological environment in which location-based services (LBS) can realistically develop. In this paper we review the nature of locationbased services and the implications for data and spatial queries. In doing so, we put forward a research agenda that arises for geographical information science and engineering. Central to LBS are problems of response time and the information utility of responses to queries and any pushed alerts, where information utility refers to content, timeliness and geographical footprint. Within a publish/subscribe model of LBS provision, we propose mobile space-time envelopes as a novel approach to event brokerage. These envelopes simultaneously provide ‘soft clip’ pruning of candidate data sets in anticipation of queries, and provide the trigger that subscribers are pertinently in-range for alerts. We present the geometrical, algebraic and algorithmic concepts of mobile space-time envelopes and provide an example of these mobile envelopes in action. We conclude with a discussion of how this initial implementation could be further developed to incorporate added spatio-temporal intelligence.

Brimicombe, A.J. (2006) "Location-Based Services and GIS" in Handbook of Geographical Information Science (eds. Wilson and Fotheringham), Blackwell, Oxford: Chapter 38. (in press)

In this chapter, I set the context for the emergence of location-based services (LBS) as an application of GIS. LBS is then defined and placed alongside other GIS-based technologies. I explore some of the data implications of LBS, how LBS users are positioned so that the system knows where they are, and how queries can be expedited. I then explore some applications of LBS and conclude by reading some of the signposts as to what lies on the road ahead. LBS is a newly emerging technology and as with most other technologies we cannot be sure where it will lead us. All I can do here is reveal what is known, cut through the inevitable hype and scan the horizon of our possible futures. But one thing is for sure, LBS is an application of exciting potential which integrates nearly all aspects of geo-information science presented in the other chapters of this book.

Brimicombe, A.J. (2002) "GIS - Where are the frontiers now?" Invited Keynote. Proceedings GIS 2002, Bahrain: 33-45 

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have undergone a state change. The discipline can now differentiate activities of science and engineering from the more narrow focus of just systems. There has also been a paradigm shift towards geocomputation as an appropriate approach towards both scientific investigation and building engineering solutions. This paper discusses these issues and goes on to identify three areas at the current forefront of GIS: spatial data mining, computational modelling of spatial processes and location-based services.

Brimicombe, A.J. and Li, Y. (2002) "Dynamic space-time envelopes for location-based services" CGIS Working Paper.

An important determinant for success of location-based services (LBS) will be the speed of response for information. Databases for LBS are likely to be networked and very large with response times for spatial queries from mobile devices orders of magnitude longer to transact than non-spatial queries. This paper proposes dynamic space-time envelopes as a way of geographically partitioning databases in anticipation of requests for information from individuals on the move. The dynamics of these envelopes is illustrated using data from a real journey and pseudo code for the creation of envelopes is provided.