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Therapeutic Approaches with Refugee & Asylum Seeking Children

This page provides evidence-based research that utilised various therapeutic approaches including Cognitive-Behavioural, Systemic Family, EMDR, Narrative therapies, etc., to treat refugee and asylum seeking children.

We would like to express our deepest gratitude to researchers, mental health experts and practitioners whose work has been cited below, enriching our portal and practice of mental health professionals working with refugee and asylum seeking children.

Research papers below have been researched and compiled by Dr Farkhondeh Farsimadan, a Chartered Counselling Psychologist who is an Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society and an HCPC registered psychologist.

Please use links below to access the research papers. For some papers multiple available links are provided as some links may eventually stop working.

 

- Clark, R. (2017). Impact of trauma on childhood development: implications for the education and social prowess of refugee children. NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

http://www.startts.org.au/media/PP-Slides_STARTTS-Clinical-Evening_Child-Educational-Competencies_Prof-Richard-Clark_14-March2017.pdf

- Cohen, A., & Yadlin, Y. (2018). Time and memory in the therapeutic journey with unaccompanied asylum seeking children. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 44,3,348-367.

doi.org/10.1080/0075417X.2018.1556315

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0075417X.2018.1556315

- Given-Wilson, Z. et al. (2018). A review of adolescent autobiographical memory and the implications for assessment of unaccompanied minors' refugee determinations. Clinical Chid Psychology & Psychoiatry,23,2,209-222.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104517748697

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29260597/

- Kaplan, I., Stolk, Y., Valibhoy, M., Tucker, A., & Baker, J. (2016). Cognitive assessment of refugee children: effects of trauma and new language acquisition. Transcultural Psychiatry 53, 81–109.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461515612933

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1363461515612933

- Lies, J. et al. (2019). Prevalence of sleep disturbance and its relationships with mental health and psychosocial issues in refugees and asylum seekers attending psychological services in Australia.  Sleep Health, 5,4, 335-343.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2019.06.002

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31320291/

- Murdoch, S., & Huynh, L. (2018). Every child matters. NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

http://www.startts.org.au/media/PP-Slides_Clinical-Master-Class_Sejla-Murdoch-Disability-Attachment_14Nov2018.pdf

- Murdoch, S. (2017). Impact of trauma on the developing brain. NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

http://www.startts.org.au/media/PP-Slides_STARTTS-Clinical-Evening_Child-Educational-Competencies_Sejla-Murdoch_14-March2017.pdf

- Richter, K. et al.  (2020). Sleep disorders in migrants and refugees: a systematic review with implications for personalised medical approach.  EPMA Journal, 11,2, 251-260.   DOI: 10.1007/s13167-020-00205-2.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32549917/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13167-020-00205-2#citeas

 

- Ehntholt, K., Smith, P., & Yule, W. (2005). School-based cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention for refugee children who have experienced war-related trauma. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 10, 2, 235-250.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1359104505051214

- Ehntholt, K.A. & Yule, W. (2006). Assessment and treatment of refugee children and adolescents who have experienced war-related trauma. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 12, 1197 – 1210.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17176375 

- Fazel, M. et al. (2020). Five applications of Narrative Exposure Therapy for children and adolescents presenting with post-traumatic stress disorders. Front Psychiatry, 11,19. 

DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00019

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043101/

- Gary, J., & Rubin, N.S. (2014). A first person account of the refugee experience: identifying psychosocial stressors and formulating psychological responses. Psychology International, APA.

http://www.apa.org/international/pi/2014/12/global-violence.aspx

- King, D., & Said, G. (2019). Working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people: cultural considerations and acceptability of a cognitive behavioural group approach. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E11. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000260

https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X18000260

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-cognitive-behaviour-therapist/article/working-with-unaccompanied-asylumseeking-young-people-cultural-considerations-and-acceptability-of-a-cognitive-behavioural-group-approach/9CDBD16736466CA77315DFEF27E89BA8

- McPherson, J. (2012). Does narrative exposure therapy reduce PTSD in survivors of mass violence? Research on Social Work Practice, 22,1,29-42.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731511414147

-Miller-Graff, L.E. & Campion, K. (2016). Interventions for Posttraumatic stress with children exposed to violence: factors associated with treatment success. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 72, 3, 226-248.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jclp.22238/full

- Murray, J. S.  (2019). War and conflict: addressing the psychosocial needs of child refugees. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 40,1, 3-18. DOI: 10.1080/10901027.2019.1569184

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10901027.2019.1569184

- NICE (2018). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Guidance. National Institute for Health & Care Excellence, NICE.

https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng116

- O’Gorman, S. (2018). The case for integrating trauma informed family therapy clinical practice within the school context . British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 46,5,557-565. doi:

10.1080/03069885.2017.1407919

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03069885.2017.1407919

- Onyut, L. P., Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, M., et al. (2005). Narrative exposure therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement . BioMed Central Psychiatry, 5,7.

http://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-5-7

- Peltonen, K., & Kangaslampi, S. (2019). Treating children and adolescents with multiple traumas: a randomized clinical trial of narrative exposure therapy. European Journal of Psychotraumatology,10,1. doi:

10.1080/20008198.2018.1558708

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338259

- Robjant, K. et al. (2019).  The treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms and aggression in female former child soldiers using adapted narrative exposure therapy – a RCT in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 123, 103482.  DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2019.103482

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31639529/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0005796719301688

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336096396_The_treatment_of_posttraumatic_stress_symptoms_and_aggression_in_female_former_child_soldiers_using_adapted_Narrative_Exposure_therapy_-_a_RCT_in_Eastern_Democratic_Republic_of_Congo

- Ruf, M., Schauer, M., Neuner, F., Catani, C., Schauer, E., & Elbert T. (2010). Narrative exposure therapy for 7 to 16-year-olds: a randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 437–445.

https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20548

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jts.20548/full

- Said, G. & King, D. (2020). Implementing narrative exposure therapy for unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors with post-traumatic stress disorder: a pilot feasibility report. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 25,1, 213-226. DOI: 10.1177/1359104519864123.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31315450/

- Sarkadi, A. et al. (2018). Teaching Recovery Techniques: evaluation of a group intervention for unaccompanied refugee minors with symptoms of PTSD in Sweden. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 27,4,467–479. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-017-1093-9.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893677/

- Schroeder, E. (2019). Mental Health Interventions for Refugee Children: University of Oxford Series of Podcasts. The Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford.

www.podcasts.ox.ac.uk/series/mental-health-interventions-refugee-children

- Sullivan, A., Simonson, G. (2016). A systematic review of school-based social-emotional interventions for refugee and war-traumatised youth. Review of Educational Research, 86,2.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0034654315609419

- Tyrer, R., & Fazel, M (2014). School and community based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review. PLOS ONE 9,2, e89359.

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089359

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089359.t002

- Unterhitzenberger, J., Eberle-Sejari, R., Rassenhofer, M., Sukale,T., Rosner, R., & Goldbeck, L. (2015). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with unaccompanied refugee minors: a case series. BMC Psychiatry, 15,260.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0645-0

https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-015-0645-0

- Unterhitzenberger, J., Rosner, R. (2016). Case report: manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with an unaccompanied refugee minor girl. European Journal of Psychotraumatology,7. doi:

10.3402/ejpt.v7.29246

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716550


- Catani, C., Kohiladevy, M., Ruf, M., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2012). Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: a comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka. BMC Psychiatry 9, 22.

https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-9-22

https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-9-22

- Every, D., Smith, K., Smith, B., Trigg, J., & Thompson, K, (2017). How can a donkey fly on the plane? The benefits and limits of animal therapy with refugees. Clinical Psychologist, APA, Australian Psychological Society, 21, 1, 44-53.

https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12071

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cp.12071/full

- Goodman, G. & Dent, V.F. (2019). When I became a refugee, this became my refuge: a proposal for implementing a two-generation intervention using yoga and narrative to promote mental health in Syrian refugee caregivers and school readiness in their preschool children.  Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 18,4, 367-375. DOI: 10.1080/15289168.2019.1680939

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15289168.2019.1680939<

- Gordon, J.S., Staples, J.K., Blyta, A., Bytyqi,. M., Wilson, A.T. (2008). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in post-war Kosovar adolescents using mind-body skills groups: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,69,9,1469-76.

https://www.psychiatrist.com/JCP/article/Pages/2008/v69n09/v69n0915.aspx

- Lesmana, C.B.J., Suryani, L.K., Jensen, G.D., & iliopoulos, N. (2009). A spiritual-hypnosis assisted treatment of children with PTSD after the 2002 Bali terrorist attack. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52,1, 23-34. doi:

10.1080/00029157.2009.10401689

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00029157.2009.10401689

-Lindsey, L. et al. (2018). Expressive arts and mindfulness: aiding adolescents in understanding and managing their stress.  Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 13,3, 288-297.  DOI: 10.1080/15401383.2018.1427167

https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2018.1427167

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15401383.2018.1427167?src=recsys

- Akthar, Z., & Lovell, A. (2019). Art therapy with refugee children: a qualitative study explored through the lens of art therapists and their experiences. International Journal of Art Therapy, 24,3, 139-148.

DOI: 10.1080/17454832.2018.1533571

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17454832.2018.1533571?src=recsys

- Baker, F. & Jones, C. (2006). The effect of music therapy services on classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students in Australia—a pilot study. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 11,4, 249-260, DOI: 10.1080/1363275060102217

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13632750601022170?src=recsys

- Dieterich-Hartwell, R., & Koch, S.C. (2017). Creative Arts Therapies as Temporary Home for Refugees: Insights from Literature and Practice. Behavioral Sciences, 7,4, 69.

Doi:10.3390/bs7040069

http://www.mdpi.com/2076-328X/7/4/69/htm

http://www.mdpi.com/2076-328X/7/4/69/pdf

- Dobretsova, A., & Wiese, E.  (2019).  Sandplay: psychotrauma signs in asylum seeking adolescents.  Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 18,4, 403-416.

DOI: 10.1080/15289168.2019.1583055

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15289168.2019.1583055

- Gentlemen-Byers, J. (1996). Children of the Stones: Art Therapy Interventions in the West Bank. Art Therapy,

13,4, 238-243. doi:10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231

- Killian, T., Cardona, B., & Hudspeth, E. F. (2017). Culturally responsive play therapy with Somali refugees. International Journal of Play Therapy, 26,1,23-32.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312180841_Culturally_responsive_play_therapy_with_Somali_refugees

http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-00140-003?doi=1

http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fpla0000040

- Kronick, R., Rousseau, C., & Cleveland, J. (2018). Refugee children's sandplay narratives in immigration detention in Canada.European Child Adolescent Psychiatry,27,4,423-437. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1012-0

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28643110

- Kurahashi, Y. (2004). Theatre as the healing space: Ping Chong's Children of War. Studies in Theatre and Performance, 24,1, 23-36.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1386/stap.24.1.23/0

-Kuriansky, J. (2019). A model psychosocial support training and workshop during a medical mission for Syrian refugee children in Jordan: techniques, lessons learned and recommendations.  Journal of Infant, Child, and Adolescent Psychotherapy, 18,4, 352-366.  

DOI: 10.1080/15289168.2019.1690925

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15289168.2019.1690925

- Lee, S.Y. (2013). “Flow” in art therapy: empowering immigrant children with adjustment difficulties. Art Therapy, 30,2, 56-63.

doi: 10.1080/07421656.2013.786978

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07421656.2013.786978

- Lindsey, L. et al. (2018). Expressive arts and mindfulness: aiding adolescents in understanding and managing their stress.  Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 13,3, 288-297.  DOI: 10.1080/15401383.2018.1427167

https://doi.org/10.1080/15401383.2018.1427167

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15401383.2018.1427167?src=recsys

-Marsh. K. (2017). Creating bridges: music, play and well-being in the lives of refugee and immigrant children and young people. Journal of Music Education Research, 19,1, 60-73.

https://doi.org/10.1080/14613808.2016.1189525

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14613808.2016.1189525?src=recsys

- Meyer-DeMott, M.A., Jakobsen, M., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Heir, T. (2017). A controlled early group intervention study for unaccompanied minors: can expressive arts alleviate symptoms of trauma and enhance life satisfaction? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 58,6,510-518, doi: 10.1111/sjop.12395

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29105124

- Nakhost- Isfahani, S. (2008). Art therapy with a young refugee woman – survivor of war. International Journal of Art Therapy, 13,2, 79-87.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17454830802503453

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17454830802503453

- Posselt, T., & Hoog- Antink, M. (2016). The sound of lost homes: music therapy with refugees in Germany. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 25, sup1,108-108. doi:10.1080/08098131.2016.1180121.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303695101_The_sound_of_lost_homes_music_therapy_with_refugees_in_Germany

- Quinlan, R., Schweitzer, R.D., Khawaja, N., & Griffin, J. (2016). Evaluation of a school-based creative arts therapy program for adolescents from refugee. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 47, 72-78.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2015.09.006

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0197455615000817?via%3Dihub

- Rousseau, C. et al., (2007). Classroom drama therapy Program for immigrant and refugee adolescents: a pilot study. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 12,3,451-465.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104507078477

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1359104507078477

- Rousseau,C., Drapeau, A., Lacroix, L., Bagilishya, D., & Heusch, N. (2005). Evaluation of a classroom program of creative expression workshops for refugee and immigrant children, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 2, 180-185.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00344.x

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8051656_Evaluation_of_a_classroom_program_of_creative_expression_workshops_for_refugee_and_immigrant_children

- Rousseau, C., Lacroix, L., Singh, A., Gauthier, M.-F., & Benoit, M. (2005). Creative expression workshops in school: prevention programs for immigrant and refugee children.The Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review , 14,3, 77–80.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2542909/

- Sullivan, A., & Simonson, G. (2016). A systematic review of school-based social-emotional interventions for refugee and war-traumatized youth. Review of Educational Research, 86, 2.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0034654315609419

- Tyrer, R., & Fazel, M (2014). School and community based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review . PLOS ONE 9,2, e89359. 

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089359

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089359.t002

- Ugurlu, N., Akca, L., & Acarturk, C. (2016). An art therapy intervention for symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety among Syrian refugee children. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11,2,89-102.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17450128.2016.1181288

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17450128.2016.1181288

- Wihstutz, A. (2020). ‘I can’t sit here and cry with you, I have to play’. Strategies by very young children in refugee collective accommodation. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 28,1, 115-128. 

DOI: 10.1080/1350293X.2020.1707367

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1350293X.2020.1707367

 

- Franco, D. (2018). Trauma without borders: The necessity for school-based interventions in treating unaccompanied refugee minors. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 35,6,551-565.doi: 10.1007/s10560-018-0552-6.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30416250

- Goodkind J., LaNoue M., Lee C., Freeland L., & Freund R. (2012). Feasibility, acceptability, and initial findings from a community- based cultural mental health intervention for American Indian youth and their families. Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 381–405.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcop.20517/full

-Gottschald, G.M. & Sierau, S. (2020).  Growing up in times of war: unaccompanied refugee minors’ assumptions about the world and themselves. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 18,2, 189-206.  

DOI: 10.1080/15562948.2019.1631972

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15562948.2019.1631972

- Isakson, B. L., Legerski, J. P., & Layne, C. M. (2015). Adapting and implementing evidence-based interventions for trauma-exposed refugee youth and families. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45,4, 245-253.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10879-015-9304-5

- Killian, T., Cardona, B., & Hudspeth, E. F. (2017). Culturally responsive play therapy with Somali refugees. International Journal of Play Therapy, 26,1,23-32.

http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-00140-003?doi=1

http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fpla0000040

- King, D., & Said, G. (2019). Working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people: cultural considerations and acceptability of a cognitive behavioural group approach. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12, E11. DOI:10.1017/S1754470X18000260

https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X18000260

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/the-cognitive-behaviour-therapist/article/working-with-unaccompanied-asylumseeking-young-people-cultural-considerations-and-acceptability-of-a-cognitive-behavioural-group-approach/9CDBD16736466CA77315DFEF27E89BA8

- Radjack, R. et al.  (2020).  Cultural competence of professionals working with unaccompanied minors: addressing empathy by a shared narrative. Frontiers in Psychiatry.  doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00528

https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00528

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00528/full

- Adler-Tapia, R., & Settle, C. (2012). Specialty topics on using EMDR with children. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6,3. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.6.3.145.

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/6/3/145.full.pdf

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/springer/emdr/2012/00000006/00000003/art00009

- Barron, I. G. (2018). EMDR therapy with children and adolescents. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12,4. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.174

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/12/4/174

- Beer, R. (2018). Efficacy of EMDR therapy for children with PTSD: A review of the literature. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12, 4. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.177    

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/12/4/177


- Fernandez, I., Farrell, D., carriere, R., & Stoter, B. (2016). The refugee crisis in Europe and its implications for EMDR therapists.

http://www2.masterapp2.nl/assets/uploads/uploads/c92c6-round-table-the-hague.pdf

- Formenti, L. (2016). Traumatised refugees and EMDR psychotherapy: a brief report of experience-based EMDR practices with refugees and asylum seekers in Italy. EMDR Europe Association. Psychotraumatology Research Centre, Milan, Italy.

http://www.disaster.efpa.eu/information/psychosocial-responses-to-refugees-and-asylum-seekers/

- Gattinara, P.C., Onofri, A., & Angelini, C. (2016). The EMDR approach used as a tool to provide psychological help to refugees and asylum seekers. In M. Nickerson (ed.) Cultural competence and healing culturally based trauma with EMDR therapy: Innovative strategies and protocols. doi : 10.1891/9780826142870.0008

http://connect.springerpub.com/content/book/978-0-8261-4287-0/part/part02/chapter/ch08

- Gattinara, P. C. & Pallini, S. (2017). The use of EMDR with refugee and asylum seekers: a review of research studies. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14,5, 341-344.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321010232

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321010232_The_use_of_EMDR_wiTh_Refugees_and_Asylum_Seekers_a_Review_of_Research_studies

- Hurn, R., & Barron, I. G. (2018). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol in a Psychosocial Program for Refugee Children: A Qualitative Pilot Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12,4. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.208

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/12/4/208

- Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., & Gomez, J. (2013). The Provision of an EMDR-Based multicomponent trauma treatment with child victims of severe interpersonal trauma. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research,7,1. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.17.

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/7/1/17

- Oren, E., & Solomon, R. (2012). EMDR therapy: an overview of its development and mechanisms of action . European Review of Applied Psychology, 62,4,197-203.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2012.08.005

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1162908812000692

- Reet, O., Cancela de Ezpeleta , S., & Abdulbaghi, A. (2004). Treatment of traumatized refugee children with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in a psychodynamic context . Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 58, 3, 199-203,

doi.org/10.1080/08039480410006232

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08039480410006232

- Zaghrout-Hodali, M. (2014). Humanitarian work using EMDR in Palestine and the Arab world.

Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8,4,248-251. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.8.4.248

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