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Therapeutic Approaches with Refugee & Asylum Seeking Children

This page provides evidence-based research that utilised various therapeutic approaches including Cognitive-Behavioural, Systemic Family, EMDR, Narrative therapies, etc., to treat refugee and asylum seeking children.

We would like to express our deepest gratitude to researchers, mental health experts and practitioners whose work has been cited below, enriching our portal and practice of mental health professionals working with refugee and asylum seeking children.

Research papers below have been researched and compiled by Dr Farkhondeh Farsimadan, a Chartered Counselling Psychologist who is an Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society and an HCPC registered psychologist.

Please use links below to access the research papers. For some papers multiple available links are provided as some links may eventually stop working.

 

- Clark, R. (2017). Impact of trauma on childhood development: implications for the education and social prowess of refugee children. NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

http://www.startts.org.au/media/PP-Slides_STARTTS-Clinical-Evening_Child-Educational-Competencies_Prof-Richard-Clark_14-March2017.pdf

- Cohen, A., & Yadlin, Y. (2018). Time and memory in the therapeutic journey with unaccompanied asylum seeking children. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 44,3,348-367.

doi.org/10.1080/0075417X.2018.1556315

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0075417X.2018.1556315

- Kaplan, I., Stolk, Y., Valibhoy, M., Tucker, A., & Baker, J. (2016). Cognitive assessment of refugee children: effects of trauma and new language acquisition. Transcultural Psychiatry 53, 81–109.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1363461515612933

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1363461515612933

- Murdoch, S., & Huynh, L. (2018). Every child matters. NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

http://www.startts.org.au/media/PP-Slides_Clinical-Master-Class_Sejla-Murdoch-Disability-Attachment_14Nov2018.pdf

- Murdoch, S. (2017). Impact of trauma on the developing brain. NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

http://www.startts.org.au/media/PP-Slides_STARTTS-Clinical-Evening_Child-Educational-Competencies_Sejla-Murdoch_14-March2017.pdf

- Ehntholt, K., Smith, P., & Yule, W. (2005). School-based cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention for refugee children who have experienced war-related trauma. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 10, 2, 235-250.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1359104505051214

- Ehntholt, K.A. & Yule, W. (2006). Assessment and treatment of refugee children and adolescents who have experienced war-related trauma. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 12, 1197 – 1210.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17176375

- Gary, J., & Rubin, N.S. (2014). A first person account of the refugee experience: identifying psychosocial stressors and formulating psychological responses. Psychology International, APA.

http://www.apa.org/international/pi/2014/12/global-violence.aspx

- McPherson, J. (2012). Does narrative exposure therapy reduce PTSD in survivors of mass violence? Research on Social Work Practice, 22,1,29-42.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731511414147

- Miller-Graff, L.E. & Campion, K. (2016). Interventions for Posttraumatic stress with children exposed to violence: factors associated with treatment success. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 72, 3, 226-248.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jclp.22238/full

- NICE (2018). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Guidance. National Institute for Health & Care Excellence, NICE.

https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng116

- Peltonen, K., & Kangaslampi, S. (2019). Treating children and adolescents with multiple traumas: a randomized clinical trial of narrative exposure therapy. European Journal of Psychotraumatology,10,1. doi:

10.1080/20008198.2018.1558708

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6338259

- O’Gorman, S. (2018). The case for integrating trauma informed family therapy clinical practice within the school context . British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 46,5,557-565. doi:

10.1080/03069885.2017.1407919

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03069885.2017.1407919

- Onyut, L. P., Neuner, F., Schauer, E., Ertl, V., Odenwald, M., Schauer, M., et al. (2005). Narrative exposure therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement . BioMed Central Psychiatry, 5,7.

http://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-5-7

- Ruf, M., Schauer, M., Neuner, F., Catani, C., Schauer, E., & Elbert T. (2010). Narrative exposure therapy for 7 to 16-year-olds: a randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 437–445.

https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20548 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jts.20548/full

- Schroeder, E. (2019). Mental Health Interventions for Refugee Children: University of Oxford Series of Podcasts. The Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford.

www.podcasts.ox.ac.uk/series/mental-health-interventions-refugee-children

- Sullivan, A., Simonson, G. (2016). A systematic review of school-based social-emotional interventions for refugee and war-traumatised youth. Review of Educational Research, 86,2.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0034654315609419

- Tyrer, R., & Fazel, M (2014). School and community based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review. PLOS ONE 9,2, e89359.

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089359

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089359.t002

- Unterhitzenberger, J., Eberle-Sejari, R., Rassenhofer, M., Sukale,T., Rosner, R., & Goldbeck, L. (2015). Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with unaccompanied refugee minors: a case series. BMC Psychiatry, 15,260.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0645-0

https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-015-0645-0

- Unterhitzenberger, J., Rosner, R. (2016). Case report: manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with an unaccompanied refugee minor girl. European Journal of Psychotraumatology,7. doi:

10.3402/ejpt.v7.29246

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4716550


- Catani, C., Kohiladevy, M., Ruf, M., Schauer, E., Elbert, T., & Neuner, F. (2012). Treating children traumatized by war and Tsunami: a comparison between exposure therapy and meditation-relaxation in North-East Sri Lanka. BMC Psychiatry 9, 22.

https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-9-22

https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-244X-9-22

- Every, D., Smith, K., Smith, B., Trigg, J., & Thompson, K, (2017). How can a donkey fly on the plane? The benefits and limits of animal therapy with refugees. Clinical Psychologist, APA, Australian Psychological Society, 21, 1, 44-53.

https://doi.org/10.1111/cp.12071

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cp.12071/full

- Gordon, J.S., Staples, J.K., Blyta, A., Bytyqi,. M., Wilson, A.T. (2008). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in post-war Kosovar adolescents using mind-body skills groups: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry,69,9,1469-76.

https://www.psychiatrist.com/JCP/article/Pages/2008/v69n09/v69n0915.aspx

- Lesmana, C.B.J., Suryani, L.K., Jensen, G.D., & iliopoulos, N. (2009). A spiritual-hypnosis assisted treatment of children with PTSD after the 2002 Bali terrorist attack. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52,1, 23-34. doi:

10.1080/00029157.2009.10401689

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00029157.2009.10401689

- Akhtar, Z., & Lovell, A. (2018). Art therapy with refugee children: a qualitative study explored through the lens of art therapists and their experiences. International Journal of Art Therapy. doi:

10.1080/17454832.2018.1533571

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17454832.2018.1533571

- Baker, F. & Jones, C. (2006). The effect of music therapy services on classroom behaviours of newly arrived refugee students in Australia—a pilot study. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 11,4, 249-260, DOI:

10.1080/1363275060102217            

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13632750601022170?src=recsys

- Dieterich-Hartwell, R., & Koch, S.C. (2017). Creative Arts Therapies as Temporary Home for Refugees: Insights from Literature and Practice. Behavioral Sciences, 7,4, 69. Doi:

10.3390/bs7040069

http://www.mdpi.com/2076-328X/7/4/69/htm

http://www.mdpi.com/2076-328X/7/4/69/pdf

- Gentlemen-Byers, J. (1996). Children of the Stones: Art Therapy Interventions in the West Bank. Art Therapy, 13,4, 238-243. doi:

10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231

- Killian, T., Cardona, B., & Hudspeth, E. F. (2017). Culturally responsive play therapy with Somali refugees. International Journal of Play Therapy, 26,1,23-32.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312180841_Culturally_responsive_play_therapy_with_Somali_refugees

http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-00140-003?doi=1

http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fpla0000040

- Lee, S.Y. (2013). “Flow” in art therapy: empowering immigrant children with adjustment difficulties. Art Therapy, 30,2, 56-63. doi:

10.1080/07421656.2013.786978

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07421656.2013.786978

- Kronick, R., Rousseau, C., & Cleveland, J. (2018). Refugee children's sandplay narratives in immigration detention in Canada.European Child Adolescent Psychiatry,27,4,423-437. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1012-0

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28643110

- Kurahashi, Y. (2004). Theatre as the healing space: Ping Chong's Children of War. Studies in Theatre and Performance, 24,1, 23-36.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1386/stap.24.1.23/0

- Marsh. K. (2017). Creating bridges: music, play and well-being in the lives of refugee and immigrant children and young people. Journal of Music Education Research, 19,1, 60-73.

https://doi.org/10.1080/14613808.2016.1189525

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14613808.2016.1189525?src=recsys

- Meyer-DeMott, M.A., Jakobsen, M., Wentzel-Larsen, T., & Heir, T. (2017). A controlled early group intervention study for unaccompanied minors: can expressive arts alleviate symptoms of trauma and enhance life satisfaction? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 58,6,510-518, doi: 10.1111/sjop.12395

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29105124  
  

- Nakhost- Isfahani, S. (2008). Art therapy with a young refugee woman – survivor of war. International Journal of Art Therapy, 13,2, 79-87.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17454830802503453

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17454830802503453

- Posselt, T., & Hoog- Antink, M. (2016). The sound of lost homes: music therapy with refugees in Germany. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 25, sup1,108-108. doi:

10.1080/08098131.2016.1180121.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303695101_The_sound_of_lost_homes_music_therapy_with_refugees_in_Germany

- Quinlan, R., Schweitzer, R.D., Khawaja, N., & Griffin, J. (2016). Evaluation of a school-based creative arts therapy program for adolescents from refugee. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 47, 72-78.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aip.2015.09.006

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0197455615000817?via%3Dihub

- Rousseau, C. et al., (2007). Classroom drama therapy Program for immigrant and refugee adolescents: a pilot study. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 12,3,451-465.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104507078477

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1359104507078477

- Rousseau,C., Drapeau, A., Lacroix, L., Bagilishya, D., & Heusch, N. (2005). Evaluation of a classroom program of creative expression workshops for refugee and immigrant children, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 2, 180-185.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00344.x

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8051656_Evaluation_of_a_classroom_program_of_creative_expression_workshops_for_refugee_and_immigrant_children

- Rousseau, C., Lacroix, L., Singh, A., Gauthier, M.-F., & Benoit, M. (2005). Creative expression workshops in school: prevention programs for immigrant and refugee children.The Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review , 14,3, 77–80.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2542909/


- Sullivan, A., & Simonson, G. (2016). A systematic review of school-based social-emotional interventions for refugee and war-traumatized youth. Review of Educational Research, 86, 2.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0034654315609419


- Tyrer, R., & Fazel, M (2014). School and community based interventions for refugee and asylum seeking children: a systematic review . PLOS ONE 9,2, e89359.

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089359

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/figure?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089359.t002


- Ugurlu, N., Akca, L., & Acarturk, C. (2016). An art therapy intervention for symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety among Syrian refugee children. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 11,2,89-102.

https://doi.org/10.1080/17450128.2016.1181288

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17450128.2016.1181288

- Franco, D. (2018). Trauma without borders: The necessity for school-based interventions in treating unaccompanied refugee minors. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 35,6,551-565.

- doi: 10.1007/s10560-018-0552-6.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30416250

- Goodkind J., LaNoue M., Lee C., Freeland L., & Freund R. (2012). Feasibility, acceptability, and initial findings from a community- based cultural mental health intervention for American Indian youth and their families. Journal of Community Psychology, 40, 381–405.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcop.20517/full

- Isakson, B. L., Legerski, J. P., & Layne, C. M. (2015). Adapting and implementing evidence-based interventions for trauma-exposed refugee youth and families. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45,4, 245-253.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10879-015-9304-5

- Killian, T., Cardona, B., & Hudspeth, E. F. (2017). Culturally responsive play therapy with Somali refugees. International Journal of Play Therapy, 26,1,23-32.

http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2017-00140-003?doi=1

http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2Fpla0000040

- Adler-Tapia, R., & Settle, C. (2012). Specialty topics on using EMDR with children. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 6,3. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.6.3.145.

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/6/3/145.full.pdf

https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/springer/emdr/2012/00000006/00000003/art00009

- Barron, I. G. (2018). EMDR therapy with children and adolescents. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12,4. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.174

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/12/4/174

- Beer, R. (2018). Efficacy of EMDR therapy for children with PTSD: A review of the literature. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12, 4. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.177    

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/12/4/177

- Fernandez, I., Farrell, D., carriere, R., & Stoter, B. (2016). The refugee crisis in Europe and its implications for EMDR therapists.

http://www2.masterapp2.nl/assets/uploads/uploads/c92c6-round-table-the-hague.pdf

- Formenti, L. (2016). Traumatised refugees and EMDR psychotherapy: a brief report of experience-based EMDR practices with refugees and asylum seekers in Italy. EMDR Europe Association. Psychotraumatology Research Centre, Milan, Italy.

http://www.disaster.efpa.eu/information/psychosocial-responses-to-refugees-and-asylum-seekers/

- Gattinara, P.C., Onofri, A., & Angelini, C. (2016). The EMDR approach used as a tool to provide psychological help to refugees and asylum seekers. In M. Nickerson (ed.) Cultural competence and healing culturally based trauma with EMDR therapy: Innovative strategies and protocols. doi : 10.1891/9780826142870.0008

http://connect.springerpub.com/content/book/978-0-8261-4287-0/part/part02/chapter/ch08

- Gattinara, P. C. & Pallini, S. (2017). The use of EMDR with refugee and asylum seekers: a review of research studies. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 14,5, 341-344.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321010232

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321010232_The_use_of_EMDR_wiTh_Refugees_and_Asylum_Seekers_a_Review_of_Research_studies

- Hurn, R., & Barron, I. G. (2018). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol in a Psychosocial Program for Refugee Children: A Qualitative Pilot Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12,4. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.208

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/12/4/208

- Jarero, I., Roque-Lopez, S., & Gomez, J. (2013). The Provision of an EMDR-Based multicomponent trauma treatment with child victims of severe interpersonal trauma. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research,7,1. doi: 10.1891/1933-3196.7.1.17.

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/7/1/17

- Oren, E., & Solomon, R. (2012). EMDR therapy: an overview of its development and mechanisms of action . European Review of Applied Psychology, 62,4,197-203.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2012.08.005

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1162908812000692

- Reet, O., Cancela de Ezpeleta , S., & Abdulbaghi, A. (2004). Treatment of traumatized refugee children with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in a psychodynamic context . Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 58, 3, 199-203,

doi.org/10.1080/08039480410006232

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08039480410006232

- Zaghrout-Hodali, M. (2014). Humanitarian work using EMDR in Palestine and the Arab world.

Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8,4,248-251. doi:10.1891/1933-3196.8.4.248

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/8/4/248

- Akinsulure-Smith, A. (2009). Brief psychoeducational group treatment with re-traumatized refugees and asylum seekers. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 34, 2, 137-150.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01933920902798007

- Ehntholt, K., Smith, P., & Yule, W. (2005). School-based cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention for refugee children who have experienced war-related trauma. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 10, 2, 235-250.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1359104505051214

- Garoff, F., Kangaslampi, S., & Peltonen, K. (2019). Development and implementation of a group based mental health intervention for unaccompanied minors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 60,1,7-15. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12497.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30452082

- Gentlemen-Byers, J. (1996). Children of the Stones: Art Therapy Interventions in the West Bank. Art Therapy, 13,4, 238-243. doi:

10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07421656.1996.10759231

- Gordon, J.S., Staples, J.K., Blyta, A., Bytyqi,. M., Wilson, A.T. (2008). Treatment of post traumatic stress disorder in post-war Kosovar adolescents using mind-body skills groups: a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69,9,1469-76.

https://www.psychiatrist.com/JCP/article/Pages/2008/v69n09/v69n0915.aspx

- Gormez, V. et al., (2017). Evaluation of a school-based, teacher-delivered psychological intervention group program for trauma-affected Syrian refugee children in Istanbul, Turkey. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 27,2, 125-131. doi:

10.1080/24750573.2017.1304748

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/24750573.2017.1304748

- Hurn, R., & Barron, I. G. (2018). The EMDR Integrative Group Treatment Protocol in a Psychosocial Program for Refugee Children: A Qualitative Pilot Study. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12,4, DOI: 10.1891/1933-3196.12.4.208

https://connect.springerpub.com/content/sgremdr/12/4/208

- Schwartz, S., & Melzak, S. (2005). Using story telling in psychotherapeutic group work with young refugees. Group Analysis, 38, 2.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0533316405052385

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247736020_Using_Storytelling_in_Psychotherapeutic_Group_Work_with_Young_Refugees

- German, M., & Ehntholt, K. (2007). Asylum 2 – working with refugee children and families. The Psychologist, 20, 152 – 155.

https://thepsychologist.bps.org.uk/volume-20/edition-3/asylum-2-working-refugee-children-and-families

- Isakson, B. L., Legerski, J. P., & Layne, C. M. (2015). Adapting and implementing evidence-based interventions for trauma-exposed refugee youth and families. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45,4, 245-253.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10879-015-9304-5

- Katsounari, J. (2014). Integrating psychodynamic treatment and trauma focused intervention in the case of an unaccompanied minor with PTSD. Clinical Case Studies, 13,4, 352-367.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1534650113512021

- Miller, K.E. & Rasmussen, A. (2010). War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 7–16.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19854552

https://www.psychologytoday.com/sites/default/files/War%20Experiences%2C%20Daily%20Stressors%2C%20and%20Mental%20Health.pdf

- Amias, D., Hughes, G., & Barratt, S. (2014). Multi-layered systemic and narrative interventions with refugees and asylum seekers in a community child and adolescent mental health service. Journal of therapy consultation and training, 25,1,25-30.

http://repository.tavistockandportman.ac.uk/1337/

- Atkinson, J. (2016). Trauma travels but healing happens: when we understand the power of story. NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors.

http://www.startts.org.au/media/STARTTS-Clin-Ev_Transgenerational-Trauma_Prof-Judith-Atkinson_30March2016.pdf

- Freedman, J., Epston, D., & Lobovits, D. (2013). About narrative therapy with children.

http://www.narrativeapproaches.com/about-narrative-therapy-with-children/

http://www.narrativeapproaches.com/resources/narrative-therapy-archive/204-2/

- German, M. (2013). Developing our cultural strengths: using the ‘Tree of Life’ strength-based, narrative therapy intervention in schools, to enhance self-esteem, cultural understanding and to challenge racism. Educational and Child Psychology, 30, 4, 75 – 99.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287695411_Developing_our_cultural_strengths_Using_the_%27Tree_of_Life%27_strength-based_narrative_therapy_intervention_in_schools_to_enhance_self-esteem_cultural_understanding_and_to_challenge_racism

https://dulwichcentre.com.au/narrative-therapy-research/

- Hughes, G. (2014). Finding a voice through ‘The Tree of Life’: A strength-based approach to mental health for refugee children and families in schools. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 19,1, 139-153.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104513476719

- Hulusi, H. M. & Oland, L. (2010). Using narrative to make sense of transitions: supporting newly arrived children and young people. Journal of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties 15,4, 341-351.

https://doi.org/10.1080/13632752.2010.523247

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13632752.2010.523247

- Kronick, R., Rousseau, C., & Cleveland, J. (2018). Refugee children's sandplay narratives in immigration detention in Canada.European Child Adolescent Psychiatry,27,4,423-437. doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-1012-0

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28643110

- Jacobs, S.F. (2018). Collective narrative practice with unaccompanied refugee minors: "The Tree of Life" as a response to hardship . Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 23,2,279-293, doi: 10.1177/1359104517744246

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29277109

- Lee, P. L. (2013). Making now precious: Working with survivors of torture and asylum seekers.

The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 1.

www.dulwichcentre.com.au

https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1P3-3208602011/making-now-precious-working-with-survivors-of-torture

- Morgan, A. (2000). What is Narrative Therapy? An easy- to- read introduction. Dulwich Centre Publication.

https://dulwichcentre.com.au/what-is-narrative-therapy/

- Moore, T. (2017). Strengths-based narrative storytelling as therapeutic intervention for refugees in Greece . World Federation of Occupational Therapists Bulletin, 73 ,1,45-51.

https://doi.org/10.1080/14473828.2017.1298557

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14473828.2017.1298557

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