Guidelines and Downloads on Refugee and Asylum Seeking Children

These guides and downloads aim to help health and social care practitioners and agencies working with refugee children to inform them and their families of and/or assist them to seek their rights and entitlements.

These guides and resources have been produced by Dr Farkhondeh Farsimadan, a Chartered Counselling Psychologist who is an Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society and an HCPC registered psychologist.

Please use the categories and links provided below to view the resources.

Education

  •  
  • British Red Cross Positive Images - Migration and Development: a toolkit for teachers, youth workers and other educators to teach young people about migration and development.

Website

  • British Red Cross Refugees and Migration Teaching Resources. British Red Cross.

Website

  • City of Sanctuary UK, Resources for people including children fleeing violence and persecution and seeking sanctuary in the UK are available by theme and for various groups.These can be accessed via link below:

Website

  • Education briefing paper. Collaboratives on addressing racial inequity in COVID recovery.  Lander, V., Holloman, T. R., & Tan, J. (2021). Race Equality Foundation.

PDF

  • Education for refugee and asylum seeking children: Access and quality in England, Scotland and Wales. Gladwell, C. & Chetwynd, G. (2018). Refugee Support Network, RSN & UNICEF UK.

Website

  • Education: needs, rights & access in displacement. Forced Migration Review issue 60, March 2019. FMR is published by the Refugee Studies Centre in the Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford. The FMR 60 issue is available online and in print in English, Arabic, Spanish and French and is available in English in audio podcast format.

Website

Podcasts

  • Educational needs and experiences of refugee children in Scotland. McBride, M., Lowden, K., Chapman, C., & Watson, N. (2018). What Works Scotland, WWScot, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council and the Scottish Government.

PDF

  • Frequently asked questions for asylum seekers and refugees are answered on the UNHCR's page below:

Website

  • How schools are integrating new migrant pupils and their families? Manzoni, C., & Rolfe, H. (2019). National Institute of Economic & Social Research, NIESR.

PDF

  • How can schools and teachers help displaced children? Chinnapha, J.M. (2021). In Harkensee, C., Olness, K., & Esmaili, B.E. (eds). Child Refugee and Migrant Health. Springer, Cham. 

Website

  • Learning disability briefing paper. Collaboratives on addressing racial inequity in COVID recovery. Burk, C.K, & Ong, L. (2021). Race Equality Foundation.

PDF

  • Preparing minority children for starting primary school: integrating health and education. Chowbey, P., Garrick, R., & Harrop, D. (2015). Better Health Briefing Paper 35. Race Equality Foundation.

Briefing paper

Health care

  • Promoting the education of looked-after children & previously looked-after children. Department for Education. (2018). UK Government.

Website

  • Promoting effective integration of migrants and refugees in education: experiences from Spain, Serbia and Belgium. Bunar, N. (2019). European Trade Union Committee for Education, Stockholm University, & European Federation of Education Employers.

PDF

  • Protecting refugees in the UK. UNHCR, UK.

UNHCR Refugee website

UNHCR Education website

  • Refugee Children's Education: a review of the literature. McBride, M. (2018). What Works Scotland, WWScot, funded by the Economic and Social Research Council and the Scottish Government.

PDF

  • Responding to unaccompanied minors in Scotland: policy and local authority perspectives. Rigby, P., Fotopoulou, M., Rogers, A. & Manta, A. (2018). University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland.

Website

  • Safeguarding Strategy: Unaccompanied asylum seeking and refugee children. Department for Education and Home Office. (2017). UK Government.

Website

  • Schools of Sanctuary Resources: teaching resources, lesson plans and fact and figures about refugees for schools. These resources can be accessed via link below:

Website

  • Working with young unaccompanied asylum seekers & refugees. (2021). Education Scotland.

Website

  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, UNHCR Teaching About Refugees page provides free and adaptable teaching materials on refugees, asylum, migration and statelessness for all age groups in primary and secondary education with a section dedicated to professional development and guidance for primary and secondary school teachers on inclusion of refugee children in their classes.

Website

Health and Wellbeing

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  • Challenges and Potentials of refugee children: Data Review. UNHCR. (2017).

PDF

  • Children with chronic diseases in refugee and disaster settings. Holsinger, E. (2021). In Harkensee, C., Olness, K., & Esmaili, B.E. (eds). Child Refugee and Migrant Health. Springer, Cham. 

Website

  • Children's health: migrant health guide.

Advice and guidance on the health needs of migrant patients for healthcare practitioners. Public Health England. (2021). UK Government.

Guide

  • Child health promotion for refugees and other vulnerable populations. Srour, M.L. (2021). In Harkensee, C., Olness, K., & Esmaili, B.E. (eds). Child Refugee and Migrant Health. Springer, Cham. 

Website

  • COVID-19 in the Somali Community: urgent briefing for policy makers in the UK. The Anti-Tribalism Movement. (2020). London, UK.

PDF

  • Health needs of refugee children identified on arrival in reception countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Baauw, A., Kist-van Holthe, J., Slattery, B. et al. (2019). BMJ Paediatrics Open 2019,3: e000516.doi:10.1136/ bmjpo-2019-000516.

Website

PDF

  • Health challenges in refugee reception: dateline Europe 2016. Blitz, B.K., d'Angelo, A., Kofman, E., & Montagna, N. (2017).  International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14,12, 1484.

Website

  • Health of refugee and migrant children: technical guidance. World Health Organisation, WHO Europe. (2018).

Website

  • Improving the health care of pregnant refugee and migrant women and newborn children. 

Technical guidance on refugee and migrant health. WHO Europe.  (2018). WHO.

PDF

  • Preparing minority children for starting primary school: integrating health and education. Chowbey, P., Garrick, R., & Harrop, D. (2015). Better Health Briefing Paper 35. Race Equality Foundation

Health briefing

Health care

  • Refugee children and their families: the bigger picture. Harkensee, C., & Walpole, S. (2021). In Harkensee, C., Olness, K., & Esmaili, B.E. (eds). Child Refugee and Migrant Health. Springer, Cham. 
  • Website
  • Refugee and unaccompanied asylum seeking children and young people: guidance for paediatricians. Royal College of Paediatrics & Child Health, RCPCH, (2018).

Website

  • Responding to separated and unaccompanied minors in Scotland: policy and local authority perspectives. Rigby, P., Fotopoulou, M., Rogers, A. & Manta, A. (2018). University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland.

Website

Legal and Human Rights

  • Advice after you get refugee status.
  • Advice after you get refugee status.

Website

  • Asylum Intake Unit. You must register and have a screening at an asylum intake unit if you're in the UK and want to claim asylum. You should telephone to make an appointment. However, you will have your asylum screening at the UK border if you claim asylum as soon as you arrive in the UK.

Website

  • Asylum Policy Guidance used by UK Visa and Immigration to make decisions on asylum applications involving children.

Website

  • Please see below for the collection of children's asylum policy guidance:

- Age assessment: joint working. Home Office (2015). UK Government. Website.

- Assessing age for asylum applicants. Home Office (2019).  UK Government. Website.

- Family reunion for refugees and those with humanitarian protection. Home Office (2020).    

 UK Government. Website.

- Processing children's asylum claims. Home Office (2019). UK Government. Website.

- Tracing family members of unaccompanied asylum seeking children. Home Office (2017).  

 UK Government. Website.

  • Best Interests Procedure Guidelines (BIP Toolbox): assessing and determining the best interests of the child. UNHCR (2021). The BIP describes UNHCR’s case management framework for refuge and asylum seeking children. 

Toolbox

  • Captured childhood: introducing a new model to ensure the rights and liberty of refugee, asylum seeker and irregular migrant children affected by immigration detention. International Detention Coalition, IDC, (2012).

PDF

  • Child trafficking and exploitation: inter agency guidance. Glasgow Child Protection Committee (2019, updated 2020). CPC, Glasgow, Scotland.

Link 1

Link 2

  • Detention, denial and death: migration hazards for refugee children. Fazel, M., Karunakara, U., & Newnham, E.A. (2014). Lancet Glob Health, 2, 313 - 314.

DOI

Website

  • The 'Dublin' regulation and family unity: policy briefing. Refugee Council. (2019).

Website

  • Dublin III Regulation: transferring asylum claimants into and out of the UK where responsibility for examining an asylum claim lies with the UK or with another EU Member State or Associated State. Home Office (2020). UK Government.

Website

PDF

  • First generation immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees: learning from case reviews – summary of risk factors and learning for improved practice. NSPCC (2014). The NSPCC Information Service.

Website

  • Forced Migration Review Thematic listings . The link below provides a selection of thematic listing and FMR articles (and full issues) focusing on a specific topic including Statelessness, the Rohingya, Children on the Move, Trafficking and Smuggling of People, Protection at Sea, Youth, Health, Displacement, etc. Most of the articles are available in English, Arabic, French and Spanish. 

Website

  • Forthcoming Forced Migration Review, FMR, feature themes can be accessed via link below:

Website

  • Global points of 'vulnerability': understanding processes of the trafficking of children and young people into, within and out of the UK. Hynes, P. (2010). The International Journal of Human Rights,14, 6,952-970. 

DOI

Website

  • Heading Back to Harm: a study on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK. Every Child Protected Against Trafficking, ECPAT, (2016). 

Website

Download

  • The Impact of Brexit on Children and Families Crossing Borders: a fact sheet for professionals protecting children. Children & Families Across the Borders, CFAB. (2019).

PDF

  • Left behind: how the world is failing women and girls on refugee family reunion. Care International. (2017).

Website

  • Neither safe nor sound: unaccompanied children on the coastline of the English Channel and the North Sea. UNICEF France, French National Committee for UNICEF. (2016).

Website

PDF

  • NSPCC's Child Trafficking Advice Centre (CTAC) provides free guidance, support and training to professionals concerned that a child or young person has been or is about to be trafficked into or out of the UK. NSPCC has developed two booklets, one for children and one for professionals working with them: Are you a child who has come to the UK from another country? Find out about children's rights in the UK and who can help you. This leaflet is available in 12 languages.

Website

Website

  • Advice for professionals working with children from Romania in the UK.

PDF

  • Protecting refugees in the UK. UNHCR, UK.

UNHCR refugees website

UNHCR education website

  • Refugee and asylum seeking-children: interrupted child development and unfulfilled child Rights. Vaghri, Z., Tessier, Z., & Whalen, C. (2019). Children, 6, 11, 120.

Link 1

Link 2

  • Refugee children: guidelines on protection and care. UNHCR (1994).

Website

PDF

  • Refugee Action's Asylum Guides. Refugee Action. UK.

Asylum Guides is a programme developed by Refugee Action and aims to support organisations working with asylum seekers and asylum seekers themselves in their asylum journey. Resources available are in a number of languages in video and information sheet format and for women, children and young people who have made a claim for asylum in the UK to understand the asylum process and their rights.    

Guide

  • Safeguarding strategy: unaccompanied asylum seeking and refugee children. Department for Education and Home Office. (2017). UK Government.

Website

The Scottish Government supports refugees and asylum seekers through below policies:

Website

  • - Funding work with refugees and asylum seekers

Website

  • - New Scots:  refugee integration strategy 2018-2020.

Website

  • - Unaccompanied children

Website

  • - Working with partners

Website

  • The rights of refugee children and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Lawrence, J. A., Dodds, A.E., Kaplan, I., & Tucci, M.M. (2019). Law, 8, 3, 20.

DOI

Website

  • Towards integration: The Syrian Vulnerable Persons Resettlement Scheme in the United Kingdom. UNHCR, (2017).

PDF

  • Young refugees & migrants: what we do & our work. The Children's Society.

Website

  • UK refugee resettlement: policy guidance. Home Office. (2021). UK Government.

PDF

  • Unaccompanied asylum-seeking children: national transfer scheme. UK Visas & Immigration. (2018). UK Government.

Unaccompanied asylum seeking children: national transfer scheme - GOV.UK

PDF

Mental Health

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  • A systematic review of school-based social-emotional interventions for refugee and war-traumatized youth. Sullivan, A. L., & Simonson, G. R. (2016). Review of Educational Research, 86,2.

Website

  • Bridging the gap in global youth mental health. Dawson, K. (2017). University of New South Wales & the World Health Organisation, WHO. Research presented at NSW, Service for the Treatment and Rehabilitation of Torture and Trauma Survivors, STARTTS, Annual Research Symposium.

PDF

  • Challenges and Potentials of refugee children: Data Review. UNHCR. (2017).

PDF

  • Coping with cultural differences. Olness, K. (2021). In Harkensee, C., Olness, K., & Esmaili, B.E. (eds). Child Refugee and Migrant Health. Springer, Cham. 

Website

  • Ethnographic assessment of psychosocial needs of children at Vasilika camp: summary report. Jones, L. (2017). International Medical Corps, IMC.

Website

PDF

  • Guidelines for psychologists working with refugees and asylum seekers in the UK - Summary. The British Psychological Society, BPS. (2018).

PDF

  • Guidelines for psychologists working with refugees and asylum seekers in the UK - Extended Version. The British Psychological Society, BPS. (2018).

PDF

PDF

  • Guidance for psychologists on working with community organisations. The British Psychological Society, BPS. (2018).

PDF

  • How to help parents and other caretakers. Goodfriend, M. (2021). In Harkensee, C., Olness, K., & Esmaili, B.E. (eds). Child Refugee and Migrant Health. Springer, Cham.

Website

  • The impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on the mental health and well‐being of children and young people. Cowie, H., & Myers, C. A. (2021).  Children & Society, 35(1), 62-74.

Website

  • The importance of counselling support for refugee children. Pezerović, A. & Milić Babić, M. (2016). Ljetopis socijalnog rada, 23,3, 363-380.

DOI

  • The importance of promoting mental health in children and young people from black and minority ethnic communities. Lavis, P. (2014). Better Health Brief Paper, 33. Race Equality Foundation.

Briefing paper

Health care

  • In or out? Barriers and facilitators to refugee background. Young people accessing mental health services. Colucci, E., Minas, H., Szwarc, J., Guetra, C., & Paxton, G. (2015). Transcultural Psychiatry, 52, 6, 766 – 790.

Website

  • Mental health and wellbeing of asylum seekers and refugees: evidence review and scoping. Sneddon, H. (2018). Public Health Agency, PHA, Northern Ireland.

Website

PDF

Website

  • Mental health of Somali adolescent refugees: The role of trauma, stress, and perceived discrimination. Ellis, B.H., MacDonald, H.Z., Lincoln, A.K., & Cabral, H.J. (2008). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76,2,184-93.

Website

  • Multi-tier mental health program for refugee youth. Ellis, B. H., Miller, A. B., Abdi, S., Barrett, C., Blood, E. A., & Betancourt, T. S. (2013). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81,1,129-140.

Website

ResearchGate

  • New approaches to interventions for refugee children. Vostanis, P. (2016). Journal of the World Psychiatric Association, WPA, 15,1, 75-77.

Website

PDF

  • Post- traumatic stress disorder. Guidance. National Institute for Health & Care Excellence, NICE. (2018).

Website

  • Potential barriers in the therapeutic relationship in unaccompanied refugee minors in mental health. Majumder, P., Vostanis, P., Karim, K., & O’Reilly, M. (2019). Journal of Mental Health, 28,4,372-378.

DOI

Website

  • Preventive mental health interventions for refugee children and adolescents in high-income settings. Fazel, M & Betancourt, T. (2018). The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, 2,2, 121–32.

DOI

PDF

Website

  • The right location? Experiences of refugee adolescents seen by school-based mental health services. Fazel, M., Garcia, J., & Stein, A. (2016). Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 3,368-380.

DOI

  • Suicide raises alarm about UK's treatment of child refugees. Gentleman, A. (2018). The Guardian.

News article

Website

  • 'This doctor, I not trust him, I'm not safe': the perception of mental health and services by unaccompanied refugee adolescents. Majumder, P., O'Reilly, M., Karim, K. & Vostanis, P. (2015). International Journal of Social Psychology, 61,2, 129-136.

Link 1

Link 2

Social Welfare

  •  
  • Child trafficking and exploitation: inter agency guidance. Glasgow Child Protection Committee (2019, updated 2020). CPC, Glasgow, Scotland.

Link 1

Link 2

  • Children & families briefing paper. Collaboratives on addressing racial inequity in COVID recovery.  Mehay, A. (2021). Race Equality Foundation.

PDF

  • Cross-border child safeguarding: challenges, effective social work practice and outcomes for children. Children and Families Across Borders, CFAB. (2018).

PDF

  • Ethnographic assessment of psychosocial needs of children at Vasilika camp: summary report. Jones, L. (2017). International Medical Corps, IMC.

Website

PDF

  • First generation immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees: learning from case reviews – summary of risk factors and learning for improved practice. NSPCC (2014). The NSPCC Information Service.

Website

  • Forced Migration Review Thematic listings. The link below provides a selection of thematic listing and FMR articles (and full issues) focusing on a specific topic including Statelessness, the Rohingya, Children on the Move, Trafficking and Smuggling of People, Protection at Sea, Youth, Health, Displacement, etc. Most of the articles are available in English, Arabic, French and Spanish.

Website

  • Forthcoming Forced Migration Review, FMR, feature themes can be accessed via link below:

Website

  • Global points of 'vulnerability': understanding processes of the trafficking of children and young people into, within and out of the UK. Hynes, P. (2010). The International Journal of Human Rights,14, 6,952-970.

DOI

Website

  • Heading Back to Harm: a study on trafficked and unaccompanied children going missing from care in the UK. Every Child Protected Against Trafficking, ECPAT, (2016).

Link 1

Link 2

  • The impact of Brexit on children and their families crossing borders: a fact sheet for professionals protecting children. Children and Families Across Borders, CFAB. (2019).

PDF

Learning disability briefing paper. Collaboratives on addressing racial inequity in COVID recovery. Burk, C.K, & Ong, L. (2021). Race Equality Foundation.

PDF

  • Local Government Association, LGA, page is a one-stop resource containing valuable and up- to- date information and guidelines for councillors, council officers and other professionals who provide support to refugees, asylum seekers and unaccompanied children.

Website

  • Neither safe nor sound: unaccompanied children on the coastline of the English Channel and the North Sea. UNICEF France, French National Committee for UNICEF, (2016).

Website

PDF

  • NSPCC's Child Trafficking Advice Centre, CTAC, provides free guidance, support and training to professionals concerned that a child or young person has been or is about to be trafficked into or out of the UK. NSPCC has developed two booklets, one for children and one for professionals working with them: 
  • Are you a child who has come to the UK from another country? Find out about children's rights in the UK and who can help you. This leaflet is available in 12 languages.

Website

Website

  • Advice for professionals working with children from Romania in the UK.

PDF

  • Refugee and asylum seeking- children: interrupted child development and unfulfilled child rights. Vaghri, Z., Tessier, Z., & Whalen, C. (2019). Children, 6, 11, 120.

Website

Journal

  • The Scottish Government supports refugees and asylum seekers through below policies:

Website

  • Funding work with refugees and asylum seekers

Website

  • New Scots: refugee integration strategy 2018-2020.

Website

  • Unaccompanied children

Website

  • Working with partners

Website

  • Scottish Refugee Council's library of resources. These resources are organised by topic and are free to download.

Website

  • Social work with unaccompanied asylum seeking children in Scotland. Ramsey, A. (2020). The Institute of Research & Innovation in Social Services, IRISS, Insight 51.

PDF

Website

  • Towards integration: The Syrian Vulnerable Persons' Resettlement Scheme in the United Kingdom. UNHCR, (2017).

PDF

  • Unaccompanied asylum seeking children and leaving care: funding instructions. Guidance. UK Visas & Immigration. (2019). UK Government. Instructions to local authorities about funding for the support and care of former and unaccompanied asylum seeking children (UASC).

Website

PDF

PDF

  • Unaccompanied minors. Al Salehi, S.M. (2021). In Harkensee, C., Olness, K., & Esmaili, B.E. (eds). Child Refugee and Migrant Health. Springer, Cham.

Website

  • Universal credit: Immigration and residence conditions

Website

  • Working together to safeguard children: a guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Department of Education. (2018). UK Government.

Website

PDF

Working with Interpreters

  •  
  • Breaking down language barriers: a practice-near study of social work using interpreters. Westlake, D. & Jones, R.K. (2018).British Journal of Social Work, 48, 5, 1388-1408.

DOI

Website

  • Child interpreting in social work: competence versus legitimacy. Lucas, S.E. (2015). Transnational Social Review, 5, 2, 145-160.DOI: 10.1080/21931674.2015.1028814

Website

  • Ethics training for humanitarian interpreters working in conflict and post-conflict settings. Luchner, C.D., & Kherbiche, L. (2019).  Journal of War & Culture Studies, 12,3, 251-267.  DOI: 10.1080/17526272.2019.1644412

Website

  • My languages matter: the multilingual outlook for children in care - a White Paper. Costa, B., Dioum, M., & Yorath, S. (2015). The Victoria Climbie Foundation UK and Mothertongue.

Website

PDF

  • Spoken language interpreters in social work. Lucas, S. (2020).The Institute of Research & Innovation in Social Services, IRISS, Insights 52.

PDF

Website

  • Support for children using their interpreting skills. Mothertongue. (2015). Mothertongue multi-ethnic Counselling.

Video

  • Working with interpreters: guidelines for psychologists. The British Psychological Society, BPS. (2017).

PDF

  • Working with interpreters online or via the telephone. BPS. (2020). British Psychological Society.

This guidance aims to help psychologists working remotely with interpreters and was developed with psychologists and interpreters. 

Website

Working with interpreters online or via the telephone.pdf (bps.org.uk)

The above guidance should be read in conjunction with the BPS working with interpreters: Guidance for psychologists. BPS. (2017). British Psychological Society. (See above this section).

  • Working with interpreters in a humanitarian setting.  Harkensee, C. (2021). In Harkensee, C., Olness, K., & Esmaili, B.E. (eds). Child Refugee and Migrant Health. Springer, Cham. 

DOI

Link

  • Working with Interpreters in Mental Health. Good practice guideline. Tribe R., & Thompson K. (2021). In Bhugra, D., Moussaoui, D., Ventriglio, A., & Tribe, R. (eds). Mental Health, Mental Illness and Migration. Mental Health and Illness Worldwide. Springer, Singapore.

DOI

Link