Brimicombe, A.J. & Li, Y. (2020) Evidencing the Impacts of the Olympic Games - The View from London 2012. In Evaluating the Local Impacts of the Rio Olympics (ed. Neri, M). Routledge, Abingdon: 229-250 

Imtiaz, S.; Brimicombe, A.J. (2017) A better comparison summary of credit scoring classification. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications 8(7) [open access at:

Brimicombe, A.J. (2016) "Assessing the legacy of the London 2012 Olympic Games" Royal Economic Society Newsletter Issue  172: 6-9

The Olympic Games have been dubbed the 'greatest show on Earth' and whilst the President of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) stopped short of pronouncing London 2012 as 'the greatest Games ever', that they were a successful event is not in doubt. But what of the legacy - has the London 2012 Games been living up to its promises? The IOC’s official impact report - the Olympic Games Impact (OGI) studies - published in December 2015 assesses just that. OGI meet the IOC’s desire to develop an objective and scientific analysis of the impact of each edition of the Games and are intended to provide a record of both the individual nature of each Olympiad and its host context. London 2012 were the first Summer Games for which this was mandated through the host city contract. But there have been quite a number of other enquiries, reviews, 'meta-evaluations' and 'supra-evaluations' as well. This article looks at the landscape of assessing the legacy of London 2012.

Brimicombe, A.J. (2015) Text mining the election manifestos. British Society of Criminology Newsletter 76: 30-35 

Brimicombe, A.J. (2015) "How do we measure legacy?" In Mega-Event Cities: Urban Legacies of Global Sports Events (eds. Viehoff & Poynter). Ashgate, Farnham: 33-46
This chapter is written in the context of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Legacy is taken simply to be: any net impact arising from a mega-event. The term 'impact' refers to any change or transformation, for better or for worse, that has taken place and which is attributable to the mega-event - in other words the link, direct or indirect, to the mega-event needs to be mapped. However, the key term in the definition is 'net', that is, the impact that has occurred over and above what would have happened without the mega-event. City mega-events are rarely context-free or designed on a tabula rasa; rather they are superimposed on existing trajectories of historical development. Establishing a plausible counterfactual to measure net impact against is therefore critical to knowing what the true legacy of a mega-event is.

Li, Y (2015)  "Measuring and assessing the impacts of London 2012"  In The London Olympics and Urban Development: The Mega-Event City, Routledge, 35-47

The legacy of an Olympic Games is often conceived in many different contexts. In order to achieve a lasting legacy, it is critical to measure and assess the impact of the Games from a range of perspectives. This study provides a record of the specific nature of the London 2012 Olympic Games and its host context, and a database of information that is common to all Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. Through such impact studies, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) will build up a detailed and tangible information base on the effects and legacy of each Games. 

Oxx, K.; Brimicombe, A.J; Rush, J. (2013) Envisioning deep maps: exploring the spatial navigation metaphor in deep mapping. International Journal of Humanities and Arts Computing 7: 201-227 

Brimicombe A.J. (2012) "Beware win or lose: domestic violence and the World Cup" Significance 9(5): 32-35

A six-pack, the big match on television - and in the wake of alcohol-fuelled emotion, violence against a partner. Did domestic violence increase when the World Cup was on?

Brimicombe A.J. and Li, Y. (2012) "Open Data and the Monitoring of the Sustainability of a London 2012 Legacy"  Researching and Evaluating the Games Conference, London, Department for Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) of UK government

This study was competitively commissioned by the ESRC on behalf of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and London 2012. Due to the open data policy and web dissemination of data tables, no new primary data collection was required to carry out the study. This is not the case with other host cities where in Vancouver and now in Sochi and Rio large amounts of primary data collection become necessary because fundamental data on the environment, economy and society are not readily available at sufficient granularity. The performance of London 2012 can continue to be monitored on an annual basis from open data updates which act as a barometer to legacy outcomes. This is a testament to the accessible time-series data infrastructure that has been created in the United Kingdom which for most data sets can be for a decade

Brimicombe, A.J. (2009) GIS, Environmental Modeling and Engineering  (2nd Edition). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Brimicombe, A.J. and Li, C. (2009) Location-Based Services and Geo-Information Engineering, Wiley, Chichester.

Location-Based Services (LSB) are the delivery of data and information services where the content of those services is tailored to the current location and context of a mobile user. This is a new and fast-growing technology sector incorporating GIS, wireless technologies, positioning systems and mobile human-computer interaction. Geo-Information (GI) Engineering is the design of dependably engineered solutions to society's use of geographical information and underpins applications such as LBS. These are brought together in this comprehensive text that takes the reader through from source data to product delivery. This book will appeal to professionals and researchers in the areas of GIS, mobile telecommunications services and LSB. It provides a comprehensive view and in-depth knowledge for academia and industry alike. It serves as essential reading and an excellent resource for final year undergraduate and postgraduate students in GIScience, Geography, Mobile Computing or Information Systems who wish to develop their understanding of LBS.

Brimicombe, A.J. (2003) GIS, Environmental Modelling and Engineering. Taylor & Francis, London. 
The significance of modelling in managing the environment is well recognised from scientific and engineering perspectives as well as in the political arena. Environmental concerns and issues of sustainability have permeated both public and private sectors, particularly the need to predict, assess and mitigate against adverse impacts that arise from continuing development and use of resources. Environmental modelling is an inherently spatial activity well suited to taking advantage of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) functionality whether this be modelling aspects of the environment within GIS or linked to external simulation models. In doing so, a number of issues become important: environmental models need to consider space-time processes often in three-dimensions whereas GIS are largely two-dimensional and static; environmental models are often computational simulations, as distinct from cartographic modelling and map algebra in GIS; what should be the degree of integration between GIS and environmental models on any project; how does uncertainty in spatial data from GIS and the choices of parameterisation in environmental models combine and propagate through analyses to affect outputs; by what means can decisions be made with uncertain information. These issues inevitably arise in every scientific and engineering project to model and manage our environment. Students need to be made aware of these issues. Practitioners should enrich their knowledge and skills in these areas. This book focuses on the modelling, rather than on data collection or visualisation - other books adequately cover these areas - and aims to develop critical users of both GIS and environmental models.

Miller, N. and Brimicombe, A.J. (2004) "Mapping research journeys across complex terrain with heavy baggage." Studies in Continuing Education 26: 405-417 

In this article we review our experience of collaborating in the design and delivery of multidisciplinary training and support programmes for doctoral students, and our attempts to locate models and metaphors for research planning and implementation which travel well across disciplines. We extend the metaphor of the journey to conceptualise a mapping of the PhD process, and examine the extent to which research students from widely divergent backgrounds may travel together and help each other navigate towards their destinations. We explore some issues of culture and communication involved in working in an interdisciplinary context, showing how we have been provoked to reflect critically on our own research identities and locations in the process of working together. We also identify some tensions between the assumptions about research development embodied in recent government policy documents and the lived experience of the research students with whom we work.

Miller, N. and Brimicombe, A.J. (2003) "Disciplinary divides: finding a common language to chart research journeys." Speaking in Tongues: Languages of Lifelong Learning  (eds. Davidson et al.), SCUTREA, London: 269-273 

Brimicombe, A.J. (2002) "GIS - Where are the frontiers now?" Invited Keynote. Proceedings GIS 2002, Bahrain: 33-45 

Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have undergone a state change. The discipline can now differentiate activities of science and engineering from the more narrow focus of just systems. There has also been a paradigm shift towards geocomputation as an appropriate approach towards both scientific investigation and building engineering solutions. This paper discusses these issues and goes on to identify three areas at the current forefront of GIS: spatial data mining, computational modelling of spatial processes and location-based services.

Brimicombe, A.J. (2000) "GIS as science, engineering and technology - do we have a model?" Proceedings EUGISES 2000, Budapest (CD). 

Pertinent issues of geographical information systems as technology, science and engineering are revisited sequentially using the metaphor of the peg, clothes hanger and valet stand. These three organisational phases map out the development of the GI domain and in particular the emergence of a science. The view put forward in the paper is that we are on the threshold of the third phase when a mature science emerges to influence both the technology and engineering aspects. From an educational perspective, a clearer view of the domain and its constituent parts is required. A linguistic model is proposed for wider discussion, that attempts to bring together the identities of GI as science, engineering and technology and give coherence to educational programmes.

Tsui, P. and Brimicombe, A.J. (1998) "A conceptual framework of spatio-temporal process models for GIS: a planning perspective" Proceedings XX1 FIG Congress, Vol. 3: 383-397 

Current development of GIS applications has been hindered by the lack of functionality to handle and analyse temporal geographical phenomena. A fundamental obstacle in developing temporal GIS is the absence of comprehensive and generalised conceptual models of spatio-temporal processes suitable for implementation in a GIS environment. This paper proposes a conceptual framework of spatio-temporal process models which can cover a wide range of temporal geographical phenomena and integrate with spatio-temporal data models for GIS. Finally, the use of this framework in modelling dynamic spatial processes in a planning perspective is illustrated.

Brimicombe, A.J. (1998) "Don's Diary" The Times Higher, February 6 p16 

Brimicombe, A.J. and Yeung, D. (1995) "An object oriented approach to spatially inexact socio-cultural data" Proceedings 4th International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning & Urban Management, Melbourne, Vol. 2: 519-530 
Culture, as a system of shared beliefs within a society, has an important influence on the use of land and attitudes towards the environment. Socio-cultural data describing the spatial manifestations and influences of culture should therefore be fundamental to the processes of planning and conservation. Socio-cultural data, however, are inherently inexact and topology may not be strictly determined by geometric adjacency. Thus geographical information systems currently used by planners are largely unable to represent socio-cultural phenomena, leading to its exclusion from many analyses and hence from much of the decision-making process. This paper argues for an object-oriented approach in which socio-cultural objects and classes of phenomena can be modelled initially as a-spatial. This is illustrated using a Hong Kong example of the influence of traditional landscape beliefs (feng shui) on village layout. Location and extent, as attributes of objects, can then be defined using raster and/or vector in absolute or relative space. The outcome of this approach provides a new GIS perspective of space, place and landscape.

Brimicombe, A.J. (1993) "GIS Laboratories: Perpetual Motion, Perpetual Money" Geo Info Systems  3(4): 53-56 

Brimicombe, A.J. (1990) "A review of GIS/LIS activities in Hong Kong" Proceedings GIS/LIS '90, Anaheim; Vol. 2: 636-644

Brimicombe, A.J. (1989) "Commercialisation: a south-east Asian viewpoint" International Journal of Remote Sensing  10: 429-430

Centre for Geo-Information Studies

The Centre for Geo-Information Studies is an established research centre specialising specialise in all aspects of geo-information science.

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