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Volume 5, No.2 

November, 2015

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Editorial

We begin this issue with an article from Iona Burnell. Her work centres around research conducted into the experiences and perspectives of a sample of non-traditional learners in HE. For these students, entry into Higher Education has been made possible by widening participation policies and practice, and non-traditional routes such as access courses. The findings of the research are based on interviews with participants, all of whomare, or have been, mature working- class students in universities. Jodi Roffey-Barentsen’s small-scale case study explores the experiences and perceptions of students on their first year of HE study in a further education institution. Reflecting on their transition,  the purpose was to identify strategies to address students’ anxieties. Her findings suggest more information be made available before or at the beginning of a programme, by providing opportunities to sit in on lessons, speak to students and access reading lists. In his article,Christopher Dalladay summarises some of the key features of a doctoral research study into the influence that music teacher biography (background, education, environment) has on their practice as a teacher in the secondary music classroom in England. The research focuses principally on the development of a range of competencies and learning contexts necessary to the growing musician, and how far these can be observed in the activities in which the young people participate in the classroom and the priorities placed upon them by the teachers. Nasima Hassan and Kamal Ahmed write about their case study investigating how multilingual  competencies  in a madrasah in Tower Hamlets, an east London borough, are utilised through translanguaging, to teach the core content of the curriculum. The authors demonstrate how a variety of languages can be, and are being, employed effectively within classroom environments in the supplementary sector by observing how teachers and students combine and alternate between Arabic, Urdu, Sylheti and English to engage with the curriculum content. The home learning environment (HLE) has been shown to be a significant predictor of subsequent attainment at school. In his article, Neil Herrington  considers a number of studies in this area and puts forward the  possibility of enhancing the HLE through techniques associated with place- based education and the use of the ‘local’. Barriers to such an approach are explored as are a number of factors which would facilitate this way forward. Chris Tyrrell, focuses on his own practice as subject leader for mathematics on a university-based PGCE Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme. By using a mixed methods paradigm and an action research methodology, he explores elements of that practice and places them in the context of recent developments in the sector, notably the introduction of the revised national curriculum in 2014 and the Carter review in 2015. Writing about steel bands and their introduction, over time, in British schools, Lionel McCalman examines how far we have come in the last 40 years, in forging a music curriculum in schools under a truly multicultural umbrella.

Our guest writer is Kari Smith, Professor (PhD) of Education on the Programme for Teacher Education (PLU), Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Bergen. Kari’s main research interests are teacher education, professional development, mentoring novice teachers and assessment for, and of, learning. She has published widely and has given invited talks in Australia, New Zealand, China, Dubai, Korea, Singapore, Africa, USA, South America, Europe, Israel and in her own country, Norway. Kari is a founding member of the International Forum for Teacher Educator Development (InFoTED). In this, her first article in the journal, she elaborates on the understanding of the concept ‘research-based’ teacher education, arguing that developing teacher educators’ research competence is a neglected challenge, as also is the need for protected time for teacher educators to engage in research.

This number’s book reviews are provided by Rose WhiteMark TymmsNeil Herrington and Zarina Waheed. As always we hope that you enjoy the collection of articles in this issue of the periodical. It is with great pleasure then that we announce Professor Simone White as our guest writer for the next (May 2016) edition of RiTE.

Cite as:
Gerry Czerniawski (2015) ‘Editorial’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 5–5. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Gerry Czerniawski
University of East London
Pages 5-5

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Articles

Abstract

Non-traditional students who have no history in the field of higher education (HE) in the UK, and have progressed through non-traditional routes, often undergo a unique and profound experience. This can involve reshaping their identities and perceptions of themselves. This paper centres around research conducted into the experiences and perspectives of a sample of non-traditional learners in HE. For these students, HE has been made possible by widening participation policies and practice, and non-traditional routes such as access courses. The findings of the research are based on interviews with participants, all of whom are, or have been, mature working-class students in universities.

Keywords: Widening participation; Non-traditional student; Social class; Working class

Cite as:
Iona Burnell (2015) ‘Widening participation in higher education: reshaping identities of non-traditional learners ’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 6–11. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Iona Burnell
University of East London
Pages 6-11 

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Abstract

The transition from a Level 3 programme to a higher education (HE) programme (Level 4) can be a bumpy one, which, when accompanied by significant anxieties and worries for many students, may affect retention rates. This small-scale case study explores the experiences and perceptions of students on their first year of HE study in a further education institution. Reflecting on their transition, the purpose was to identify strategies to address specific anxieties. Data collected from 106 questionnaires and one interview identified that students feel ill- prepared for the demands of HE. To overcome this it is suggested that more information be made available before or at the beginning of a programme, by providing opportunities to sit in on lessons, speak to students and access reading lists. Further, the development of academic skills was considered essential for those students who enter with more vocational qualifications.

Keywords: transition; student perception; HE in FE; retention; student anxiety

Cite as:
Jodi Roffey-Barentsen (2015) ‘Smoothing the ride: an exploration of students’ experiences and perceptions of the transition from a Level 3 qualification to a higher education programme (Level 4) in a further education Institution ’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 12–16. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Jodi Roffey-Barentsen
University of East London
Pages 12-16

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Abstract

This paper summarises some of the key features of a doctoral research study into the influence that music teacher biography (background, education, environment) has on their practice as a teacher in the secondary music classroom in England. The research focuses principally on the development of a range of competencies and learning contexts necessary to the growing musician and how far these can be observed in the activities in which the young people participate in the classroom and the priorities placed upon them by the teachers. Springing from this research has also been a consideration of the developing identity of the music teacher, especially where it may conflict with their identity as a musician. There are a number of implications for teachers themselves, for schools and local authorities, as well as for education policy and its makers.

Keywords: musician; music teacher; identity; musical competency; teacher; biography

Cite as:
Christopher Dalladay (2015) ‘The biography of music teachers, their understanding of musicality and the implications for secondary music education ’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 17–22. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Christopher Dalladay
University of East London
Pages 17-22

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Abstract

This paper is motivated by the empowering experience of one of the authors in a madrasah (private Islamic secondary school) setting where translanguaging was applied as a teaching and learning tool during analytical exegesis of historical sources. This positive experience subsequently provided the stimuli for the authors to explore the wider mainstream potential of translanguaging as a strategy to engage and extend bilingual and multilingual learners. This case study aims to investigate how multilingual competencies in a madrasah in Tower Hamlets, an east London borough, are utilised through translanguaging to teach the core content of the curriculum. Research has demonstrated the positive impacts of bi/multilingual learning in England (Kenner et al. 2008) and America (Thomas & Collier 2002); this case study will aim to expand on previous research by demonstrating how a variety of languages can be and are being employed effectively within classroom environments in the supplementary sector by observing how teachers and students combine and alternate between Arabic, Urdu, Sylheti and English to engage with the curriculum content.

Keywords: translanguaging; language; pedagogy; multilingual; competencies; attainment

Cite as:
Nasima Hassan and Kamal Ahmed (2015) ‘Exploring translanguaging: a case study of a madrasah in Tower Hamlets ’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 23–28. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Nasima Hassan and Kamal Ahmed
University of East London
Pages 23-28

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Abstract

The home learning environment (HLE) has been shown to be a significant predictor of subsequent attainment at school. This article considers a number of studies in this area and puts forward the possibility of enhancing the HLE through techniques associated with place-based education and the use of the ‘local’. Barriers to such an approach are explored as are a number of factors which would facilitate this way forward.

Keywords: home learning environment; place-based education; attainment

Cite as:
Neil Herrington (2015) ‘Home is where the heart is: the home learning environment, place-based education and access to green space’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 29–31. www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Neil Herrington
University of East London
Pages 29-31

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Abstract

In this study, which was the focus for an MA dissertation, I focused on my own practice as subject leader for mathematics on a university-based PGCE Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programme and the ways in which I could examine, critique and ultimately change my practice in a time of change within the ITE sector. By using a mixed methods paradigm and an action research methodology, I explored elements of my practice and placed them in the context of recent developments in the sector, notably the introduction of the revised national curriculum in 2014 and the Carter review in 2015. In particular, I identified how the national context impacted on my own pedagogy in relation to trainees’ acquisition of mathematical subject knowledge, curriculum knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. The study demonstrates that by making small changes to ITE provision to implement national priorities, trainee satisfaction with the quality of their training experience can be improved.

Keywords: Primary; Initial Teacher Education; Mathematics; Carter Review; Williams Review; Mastery

Cite as:
Chris Tyrrell (2015) ‘How can I improve provision for mathematics on a primary PGCE Initial Teacher Education programme in a context of national change? ’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 32–37. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Chris Tyrrell
University of East London
Pages 32-37

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Abstract

Sixty years ago, a steel band played to an audience in the UK for the first time. Forty years ago, steel pans were introduced into British schools for two different but interrelated reasons. The first was to give credence to the cultural heritage of the black child (Caribbean or African), in a multicultural environment, and to provide opportunities for black children to explore this culture/musical traditions through their own competent performances. The second was to introduce the Caribbean’s musical tradition to the wider school population as a way of valuing other cultures. This model suggested that steel pans were solely for the benefit of black children, and the technological experts (steel pan tuners/teacher) were also to be black, or born in the Caribbean. This paper examines how far we have come in the last 40 years, in forging a music curriculum in schools under a truly multicultural umbrella.

Keywords: School steel band; secondary school; music curriculum; Caribbean cultural heritage; steel pan; musicians; multiculturalism

Cite as:
Lionel McCalman (2015) ‘Examining ethnomusicology through 60 years of steel bands in the UK, and almost 50 years of steel bands in British schools’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 38–42. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Lionel McCalman
University of East London
Pages 28-42

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Guest Author

Abstract

The current paper will briefly elaborate on the understanding of the concept ‘research-based’ teacher education and discuss what type of research teacher education and teacher educators can chiefly benefit from. I argue that developing teacher educators’ research competence is a neglected challenge and so is the need for protected time for teacher educators to engage in research.

Keywords: research-based teacher education; teacher educators; Norwegian teacher education; practice-oriented research

Cite as:
Kari Smith (2015) ‘The role of research in teacher education’ Research in Teacher Education, 5(No.2), 43–46. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Kari Smith
NTNU and University of Bergen
Pages 43-46

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Book Reviews

This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to primary school placements. Written by experienced lecturers in  Initial Teacher  Education (ITE) from the University of Worcester, it is set in the context of the varying routes into teaching currently available in England. It is likely to appeal to trainee teachers and also perhaps would be useful for colleagues who are new to the mentoring role in schools.

The book has 11 chapters, each dealing with a topic related to primary school placements. Each chapter is clearly structured and starts with a flow chart, which outlines the content of the following text. Every chapter is linked to the specific English Teachers’ Standards (2012)  covered  and  uses a mixture of helpful  information, case studies  and  critical   questions to support trainees’ understanding. Further suggestions for reading are also offered as well as a useful ‘frequently asked questions’ page and glossary at the end of the book.

Chapters in the book cover all the essential areas the trainee will need to focus on, including behaviour management, professional attributes, employability and placement practicalities. The first chapter, on reflection throughout practice, is an excellent starting point. It discusses the importance of reflection as a vital tool in informing trainee (and teacher) practice and outlines various models that can be used to support this. All the topics are covered in clear and accessible language.
Planning  and  assessment,  teaching of the core curriculum and teaching inclusively are also covered in depth. However, with the introduction of the new national curriculum in 2014 and the new special educational needs (SEN) code of practice (2015) there is a need for these chapters (6, 7 and 8) to be rewritten and updated. ‘Stepping stones’ (p. 76) are referred to as part of the EYFS (early years foundation stage) curriculum despite this terminology being dropped some time ago and superseded by ‘development matters’ in 2012. I also felt that some of the language and information in the ‘Teaching inclusively’ chapter needed updating and tweaking. For example, when discussing children for whom English is an additional language (EAL) we need  to  ensure that trainees  do not think of them as having a special educational need. On p. 112 a critical question relating to the case study talks about a child’s difficulties with language when in fact the issue he has as a learner, who is new to English, is a lack of English vocabulary, not a problem with language itself. Equally, the guidance about seeking advice from a SENCo as opposed to the inclusion manager in this situation may be misleading.

That notwithstanding I thought this was an incredibly useful book, which I feel would be very helpful for trainee teachers whatever their route and one that I (especially when it is updated) will be recommending they find in the library.
 
Reviewed by Rose White, University of East London

Cite as:
Review by (Rose White) (2015) ‘Primary school Placement: a critical guide to outstanding teaching’ Research in Teacher Education, Vol 5 (No.No.2), 47–50. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Catriona Robinson, Branwen Bingle and Colin Howard
Norwich: Critical Publishing 2013
ISBN 978-1-909-33045-0
Reviewed by Rose White
Pages 47-50

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Education studies: an issue based approach has been written to work across a wide range of reader stages and abilities, from undergraduate to postgraduate study, offering what the authors state is a critical and authoritative approach to the wide and diverse sub- topics that make up Education Studies as an academic subject. Covering 20 topics within 254 pages the authors have sought to challenge what they see as commonly accepted perspectives on education and ask the reader to question education in a thorough and critical manner, with a strong focus on the contexts of education in terms of political and socio-economic drivers, as well as issues of social and individual inclusivity.  Linked  to  these are further connections to citizenship and globalisation,  with  the   inclusion of globalisation acknowledged as a particular point of significance within the introduction. As the authors state, the text seeks to place discussions around education within what is becoming an increasingly uncertain landscape.

Certainly, it is difficult not to praise books that seek to make students question their preconceptions about education and raise the levels of criticality with which they approach the topic. Indeed, just the presence of 20 chapters, each on a different topic, must surely act to at least highlight the complexity of the field being studied and the breadth of knowledge that the reader will require to evidence a full understanding of education in all its forms. In this vein I particularly value the inclusion of community and alternative education as a way of forcing students from their often limited view of learning as a lifelong and life-wide endeavour.

The intentions of the book are therefore to be applauded and  certainly  many of the authors have succeeded in their primary purpose to represent the depth and complexity of the field that the reader has chosen to engage with  and ask them to see that field in a much more critical manner. However, concerns remain regarding the number of  topics covered, the number of authors involved in producing the text, and the impact of those factors on the quality, consistency and criticality offered throughout the book as a whole. While the number of topics covered serves to highlight breadth within the field, the depth in which they are covered is quite variable and at times the structure of some chapters is a little fragmented  and  even  confusing: lots of subsections but not always a clear intellectual route through them.

I would also query whether it is realistic to target so many learner groups in the same text, and would use the pitch at which some of the text has been levelled as an example of the problems that may be produced when doing so. Some chapters feel very much like traditional Educational Studies texts, built on straightforward historical explanations of policy and research, effective in explanation although perhaps a little dry to read, but in others complicated themes and concepts are introduced without any attempt at genuine explanation.  For  instance,  can a first-year undergraduate student be expected to understand concepts and terms such as ‘non-linear principles of dynamical systems theory and chaos’ (p. 18)? Similarly, will they necessarily understand the nature of ‘meta-cognition’, in this instance incorrectly clarified as ‘learning to learn’? In these instances, I do feel some of the text fails to provide adequate  foundational  knowledge and therefore places too much responsibility on the student to search out additional information to help them understand comments made by the author. Again this is a matter of consistency, or indeed inconsistency, and how the novice learner in particular will respond to it as a challenge to either accept or reject it as a useful text.

In a similar vein, I would suggest that such examples also serve to highlight another concern with some authors in this book, in that their writing reads as opinion and that where they have undoubtedly reached their conclusions critically that process isn’t made explicitly clear to the reader. This surely limits the ability of the text to act as an exemplar to the student coming to criticality as a novice. Again, as an example, we cannot argue with the statement that systems theory has been applied to education, but can certainly question whether it has been useful. The question remains as to whether the lack of validation supports or hinders the reader’s willingness to critically challenge the point being made.

Sound in intent and largely effective in content, this book highlights the problems associated with raising criticality in students. As with all books of this type, questions remain regarding the quantity of background information required to drive criticality; the assumptions of previous learning; levels of terminology; and the ability of authors to promote criticality of their own thinking. Here, I feel that these questions have gathered significance through a focus that has proved a little too broad and inconsistencies in writing style and structure that may challenge the engagement of the  novice  learner in particular.

Reviewed by Mark Tymms, De Montford University

Cite as:
Review by (Mark Tymms) (2015) ‘Education studies: an issue based approach’ Research in Teacher Education, Vol 5 (No.No.2), 47–50. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Will Curtis, Stephen Ward, John Sharp and Les Hankin (eds.)
London: Learning Matters 2014
ISBN 978-1-446-26743-1
Reviewed by Mark Tymms
Pages 47-50

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This collection of essays is a collaboration between Demos, a cross-party think tank, and Durham University, from where the majority of contributions are drawn. These are accompanied by contributions from Helen Barnard of the Joseph Rowntree Foundation and from two authors whose experience of late reminds us of the ‘fragility’ of life as a policy- maker: Tristram Hunt, writing as shadow secretary of state for education prior to the last election, and Sam Freedman, now at Teach First but former senior policy advisor to Michael Gove.

The essays set out to engage with educational differences associated with socio-economic status, often referred to as educational disadvantage or inequality. Higgins and Tymms  point  out  that  this is not a straightforward challenge, with only some of the solutions lying within education. Barnard points out that ‘differences in attainment between children from different socio-economic backgrounds are far greater than those related to gender or ethnicity’ (p. 35), a fact that is a major driver of poverty.

Both Barnard and Gorard raise concerns about the present focus on the reform of school structure, when there  is scant evidence of any effect this has on educational disadvantage – ‘new school types… are not the way forward’ (Gorard, p. 26)  with  ‘comprehensive, centralised and equitably funded school systems’ (Gorard, p. 25) tending to produce smaller attainment gaps. Instead, viewing disadvantage as a problem of causation, Gorard points out  that  ‘practitioners and policy-makers need to take much more notice of decent research and development… [while] researchers need to change what they do and start providing the kind of evidence that practitioners and policy-makers can use safely’ (p. 30). Merrell et al. and Torgersen then give some consideration to the development of more rigorous approaches to research and evaluations, with Torgerson making a strong case that policies and interventions ‘must be tested before implementation through carefully designed and rigorously conducted studies’ (p. 67). While largely agreeing with this, Merrell et al. recognise the ‘need to consider mechanisms to embed research findings into practice and policy effectively’ (p. 50).

The  subtitle  of  this  collection  of essays resonates with the class-based nature of the attainment gap between disadvantaged pupils and their peers, and with the research  approach  taken to identifying effective interventions to eliminate such discrepancies – namely properly controlled evaluations. This book is a good starting point to begin to engage with what is surely the most important issue facing education.
This  book  (along  with  all  of  Demos’   work) is available to download for free,  under  an  open  access  licence,  from www.demos.co.uk .
 
Reviewed by Neil Herrington, University of East London
 
Cite as:
Review by (Neil Herrington) (2015) ‘Harnessing what works in eliminating educational disadvantage: a tale of two classrooms’ Research in Teacher Education, Vol 5 (No.No.2), 47–50. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Claudia Wood and Ralph Scott (eds.)
London: Demos 2014
ISBN 978 1 909037 74 8
Reviewed by Neil Herrington
Pages 47-50

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Classroom supervision is a way of improving the quality of the teaching- learning process in schools. The authors Wayne K. Hoy and Patrick B. Forsyth are experts in educational administration, and this book is a good reflection of their expertise. The book is well written and covers almost all  essential  aspects of effective supervision. It provides an in-depth and detailed explanation of a model and its practical implications in classroom supervision. The book is an attempt to outline a model of supervision that improves instruction by employing open-systems theory. It proposes a diagnostic cycle of supervision by linking it to the classroom performance model so as to improve teaching-learning and the supervisory process. The application of theoretical concepts to real school and classroom examples is the hallmark of the book. The writing style is very fluent and engaging. Comprehendible tables, charts, and the use of examples make each chapter very interesting and engaging. The authors have synthesized everything effectively and each chapter summarizes its contents at the end, which enables the readers to revise the whole chapter.

The book has fifteen  chapters  that have been  arranged  in  three  parts. The ‘Introduction and Overview’ part comprises of three chapters. These chapters introduce the models of effective supervision, performance, and the diagnostic cycle. The second section ‘Organizational Context’ describes have analyzed competency, attitude, motivational  needs,  and  expectations of students and teachers. Furthermore, formal classroom arrangement, classroom climate, teaching tasks, and outcomes of classroom performance with a focus on the classroom performance model are the areas covered in this section.

The notion of “organization as a social system” (Katz & Kahn, 1966) is still influencing the recent literature on schools (Hussein, 2014; James et al., 2006; Muhammad Faizal, 2013). Although, the book under review is a similar attempt to explain how social systems are organized, it goes a step forward by elaborating ‘the classroom as a social system’. It explains the classroom as a sub-system of the school where supervision plays the role of input factors. Nevertheless, two important and most influential factors on the supervision process have been overlooked while describing supervision as a process of change and innovation; the authors include task-oriented and relation-oriented leadership  behaviour as input factors in their model. Change- oriented leadership behaviour without which change and innovation is not possible and has been completely ignored (see, Yukl, 2010).

Overall, the first part of the book can be challenging read. It is complicated, dense, and at times difficult to comprehend. On the other hand, parts two and three are very interesting and easy to understand.

As a reviewer, I  recommend  this  book to every supervisor, headteacher and teacher. They can apply it in their supervisory practices as the narration has a strong practical relevance. In order to reap the full benefits of this masterpiece, the reader should start from chapter 4 to 7 first, followed by chapters 9 to 14. After reading ten chapters in the above mentioned  order,  readers   become fully prepared to grasp the knowledge contained  in  chapters  1  to  3.  Chapters 8 and 15 that have a pool of cases should be attempted in the end. In this sequence, readers will find the book easy to comprehend and will make full use of it. The authors too have recommended repeatedly in chapters 8 and 15 to revise first three  chapters.  After  that,  they can grasp the technicalities of models and in end the  application  of  models in cases. Although the book  is  mainly on classroom supervision  in  schools,  it is equally important and relevant to all levels of education including colleges and universities. A new edition of this book encompassing new insights developed in recent years would be very timely. These new insights include the application of technology in education, and professional learning communities in schools, which have a strong bearing on school and classroom supervision.

References:
Hussein, A. (2014). Implementation of strategic education policy plan at micro-level contexts: Management and leadership challenges. Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Management, 2(2), 1–21.
James, C., Connolly, M., Dunning, G., & Tony, E. (2006). How Very Effective Primary Schools Work. London: SAGE.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations. New York: John Wiley.
Muhammad Faizal, G. (2013). ‘Development of effective school model for Malaysian school’. International Journal of Academic Research, 5(5), 131–142. doi:10.7813/2075-4124.2013/5-5/B.20
Yukl, G. (2010). Leadership in organizations (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
 
Reviewed by Zarina Waheed, Ph.D. Student, University of Malaya, Malaysia; Lecturer, SBK Women’s University Quetta, Pakistan.

Cite as:
Review by (Zarina Waheed) (2015) ‘Effective supervision: theory into Practice’ Research in Teacher Education, Vol 5 (No.No.2), 47–50. Available at: www.uel.ac.uk/Schools/Cass/Research/Research in Teacher Education/Volume 5 No 2 November 2015

Wayne K. Hoy and Patrick B. Forsyth
Michigan: Random House, 1986
ISBN 0-07-554370-2
Reviewed by Zarina Waheed
Pages 47-50

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